State Politics And The Affordable Care Act

Author by : John C. Morris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : After a great deal of discussion and debate across all levels of government, President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law in March 2010. Since President Trump's election into office, the ACA has stayed in the headlines. Trump has continued to call for the replacement and repeal of the ACA, and several efforts have spawned in both the House and the Senate to accomplish this goal. Unlike welfare reform, which was generally embraced by all states, the ACA has proven very divisive in some states, with some states actively seeking to block implementation. Alternative solutions continue to prove elusive. To better understand the major factors driving decision-making process and state-level dynamics influencing state support or opposition of the ACA, this book examines the initial implementation through established support and opposition factors across four states: Alabama, Michigan, California, and New Hampshire. The choices made by states are a direct consequence of long-term forces, and the choices made at the national level. State Politics and the Affordable Care Act will be of interest to scholars researching in public administration, policy formulation and implementation, and policy analysis.


The Affordable Care Act Decision

Author by : Fritz Allhoff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
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Description : Interest in NFIB v. Sebelius has been extraordinarily high, from as soon as the legislation was passed, through lower court rulings, the Supreme Court’s grant of certiorari, and the decision itself, both for its substantive holdings and the purported behind-the-scene dynamics. Legal blogs exploded with analysis, bioethicists opined on our collective responsibilities, and philosophers tackled concepts like ‘coercion’ and the activity/inactivity distinction. This volume aims to bring together scholars from disparate fields to analyze various features of the decision. It comprises over twenty essays from a range of academic disciplines, namely law, philosophy, and political science. Essays are divided into five units: context and history, analyzing the opinions, individual liberty, Medicaid, and future implications.


A Guide To The Supreme Court S Affordable Care Act Decision

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 15
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Description : On the last day of the 2011-2012 Term, the United States Supreme Court issued its long-anticipated opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In a case known as National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Court agreed to consider the constitutionality of two major provisions of the ACA: the individual mandate and the Medicaid expansion. A majority of the Court upheld the individual mandate. And, while the Court found the Medicaid expansion unconstitutionally coercive of states, because states did not have adequate notice to voluntarily consent and the Secretary could potentially withhold all of a state's existing federal Medicaid funds for non-compliance, a majority of the Court found that this issue was appropriately remedied by circumscribing the Secretary's enforcement authority, thus leaving the Medicaid expansion intact in the ACA. This policy brief describes the Court's decision and looks ahead to the implementation of health reform now that the constitutionality of the ACA has been resolved.


Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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The Health Care Case

Author by : Nathaniel Persily
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 50
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Description : The Supreme Court's decision in the Health Care Case, NFIB v. Sebelius, gripped the nation's attention during the spring of 2012. Like the legislative battle leading to adoption of "Obamacare", the litigation took many unexpected twists and turns, culminating in a surprising, fractured and confusing decision from the Supreme Court. This volume gathers together reactions to the decision from an ideologically diverse selection of the nation's leading scholars of constitutional, administrative, and health law.


The Great Health Care Decision

Author by : Roger Hite
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The Great Health Care Decision is a small volume designed to aid non-attorney readers understand and appreciate the briefing dialogue that will help the Supreme Court Justices reach their upcoming decision regarding the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act.


Unprecedented

Author by : Josh Blackman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hachette UK
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Description : Foreword by Randy E. Barnett In 2012, the United States Supreme Court became the center of the political world. In a dramatic and unexpected 5-4 decision, Chief Justice John Roberts voted on narrow grounds to save the Affordable Care Act, commonly known as Obamacare. Unprecedented tells the inside story of how the challenge to Obamacare raced across all three branches of government, and narrowly avoided a constitutional collision between the Supreme Court and President Obama. On November 13, 2009, a group of Federalist Society lawyers met in the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C., to devise a legal challenge to the constitutionality of President Obama's "legacy" -- his healthcare reform. It seemed a very long shot, and was dismissed peremptorily by the White House, much of Congress, most legal scholars, and all of the media. Two years later the fight to overturn the Affordable Care Act became a political and legal firestorm. When, finally, the Supreme Court announced its ruling, the judgment was so surprising that two cable news channels misreported it and announced that the Act had been declared unconstitutional. Unprecedented offers unrivaled inside access to how key decisions were made in Washington, based on interviews with over one hundred of the people who lived this journey -- including the academics who began the challenge, the attorneys who litigated the case at all levels, and Obama administration attorneys who successfully defended the law. It reads like a political thriller, provides the definitive account of how the Supreme Court almost struck down President Obama's "unprecedented" law, and explains what this decision means for the future of the Constitution, the limits on federal power, and the Supreme Court.


State Politics And The Affordable Care Act

Author by : John C. Morris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Why do states matter? Contemporary state policy choice -- Getting to Obamacare: a history of Health Care Reform in the U.S. -- The "nuts and bolts" of the Affordable Care Act -- A national look at ACA implementation choices -- Opposing the ACA: an Alabama case study -- Dueling sentiments: Michigan and the ACA -- Live free or die: New Hampshire and the ACA -- Taking the lead: California's endeavor for universal health care -- The broader lessons of state implementation of the ACA.


Health Reform

Author by : Iraida Orr
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 13
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A Guide To The Supreme Court S Decision On The Aca S Medicaid Expansion

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 12
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Description : On June 28, 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case challenging the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB) v. Sebelius. Two main provisions of the 2010 health reform law were at issue. The Court upheld the constitutionality of the ACA's minimum essential coverage provision, known as the individual mandate, which requires most people to maintain a minimum level of health insurance coverage beginning in 2014. The most complex part of the Court's decision concerned the ACA's Medicaid expansion: a majority of the Court found the ACA's Medicaid expansion unconstitutionally coercive of states because states did not have adequate notice to voluntarily consent to this change in the Medicaid program, and all of a state existing federal Medicaid funds potentially were at risk for non-compliance. However, a different majority of the Court held that this issue was fully remedied by limiting the Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary enforcement authority, thus leaving the Medicaid expansion (and all other ACA provisions) intact in the law. This policy brief examines the Court ruling on the Medicaid expansion. A companion brief considers questions about implementation of the Medicaid-related provisions of the health reform law in light of the Court's decision.


The Affordable Care Act Decision

Author by : Fritz Allhoff
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
Total Download : 197
File Size : 53,9 Mb
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Description : Interest in NFIB v. Sebelius has been extraordinarily high, from as soon as the legislation was passed, through lower court rulings, the Supreme Court’s grant of certiorari, and the decision itself, both for its substantive holdings and the purported behind-the-scene dynamics. Legal blogs exploded with analysis, bioethicists opined on our collective responsibilities, and philosophers tackled concepts like ‘coercion’ and the activity/inactivity distinction. This volume aims to bring together scholars from disparate fields to analyze various features of the decision. It comprises over twenty essays from a range of academic disciplines, namely law, philosophy, and political science. Essays are divided into five units: context and history, analyzing the opinions, individual liberty, Medicaid, and future implications.


Legal Challenges To Health Reform

Author by : T. R. Goldman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The Obama administration and plaintiffs in suits challenging the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 have petitioned the US Supreme Court to take up the cases and lay the issues to rest. These requests greatly increase the likelihood that the high court will agree to review the matter during its current session, which began in October 2011. Assuming that the Supreme Court acts, it will in effect review at least seven decisions that have been issued by US Courts of Appeals to date. Six of the decisions have upheld the constitutionality of the law or dismissed the challenges. In one case, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the so-called individual mandate provision of the law was unconstitutional but that the rest of the Affordable Care Act could stand. It is this decision that the Obama administration has asked the Supreme Court to review and overturn. Plaintiffs, meanwhile, want the high court to uphold this same decision, but they also want the entire Affordable Care Act to be ruled unconstitutional. This brief provides background on the individual mandate provision of the Affordable Care Act, and it explores the legal arguments pro and con in greater detail.


Health Reform

Author by : Martha Dorsey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The individual mandate to obtain health insurance under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was ruled constitutional in June 2012 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Confusion has arisen over whether the Court deemed the penalty for an individual, who does not obtain the mandated insurance coverage, is or is not a tax. This article explains the tax-related portions of the decision.


Why John Roberts Was Wrong About Healthcare

Author by : Sen. Mike Lee
Languange : en
Publisher by : Simon and Schuster
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
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Description : An original ebook from the current US senator to Utah, explaining why Chief Justice Roberts was wrong to disregard the Constitution in making his historic and controversial healthcare decision. uring Chief Justice Roberts’s first seven terms on the Supreme Court of the United States, he distinguished himself as a fair-minded jurist and a true constitutional scholar—a man seemingly committed to the rule of law and to core constitutional principles. That hard-earned distinction was turned on its head when, on June 28, 2012, the Chief Justice—writing for a five-to-four majority in National Federation of Independent Businesses v. Sebilius—essentially re-wrote key provisions of Obamacare in order to uphold the law, and allow it to be approved, in the face of a justified constitutional challenge. Now United States Senator Mike Lee presents a conservative critique of this controversial ruling, and explains why John Roberts in particular was wrong to vote to preserve the act. In an attempt to be perceived as fair in the mainstream media, Roberts allowed himself to be swayed by outside influences -- influences to which a Supreme Court justice is supposed to be absolutely immune. Not only that, Senator Lee explains, Roberts conceded that much of the Obamacare act was unconstitutional; yet he instructed states simply to ignore those parts, instead of recognizing that those parts made the entire act invalid. A smart, fair and evenhanded argument, Why John Roberts Was Wrong provides a definitive, concise argument against Obamacare.


Public Opinion Of The U S Supreme Court Understanding Attitudes About The Affordable Care Act Ruling

Author by : Andrea L. Mayer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Ideological and partisan preferences often spill over to public opinion about the legitimacy and role of the U.S. Supreme Court. However, prior research has found that the public holds a range of opinions about judicial decision-making approaches and the Court as an institution that are distinct from agreement with specific rulings or broader ideological preferences. As scholars have explored hypotheses about the nature and durability of public opinion about the Court, a number of debates have emerged, but these debates have rarely been examined through panel data. Using panel data gathered directly before and after the Court's ruling on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act, I examine four of these debates within the context of this ruling: (1) the extent to which approval of judicial decision-making approaches was conditioned on agreement with the ruling, (2) whether public attention to this case served to increase the public's knowledge of the Court, (3) whether, consistent with the theory of "positivity bias," increased knowledge of the case led to higher approval of the Court, and (4) the degree to which any of these factors influenced individual assessments about the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act when compared with partisan preferences. I find that public support for judicial decision-making approaches exhibited variability over time, and was influenced in particular by disagreement with the Court's ruling. I also find that the ruling appeared to increase the public's knowledge of the Court, but contrary to prior research, increased knowledge was linked to higher approval of some functions of the Court but not others. Finally, I find that public attitudes about judicial decision-making, knowledge of the Court, and approval of the Court appeared to play little or no role in an individual's agreement with the ruling when compared with partisan influences. Thus, while my findings generally support the theory that public approval of the Court does necessarily mirror public approval of specific rulings, I find variability within public opinion of the Court that rebuts certain findings and assumptions posited by prior research.


The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act

Author by : Wounded Warrior Publications
Languange : en
Publisher by : CreateSpace
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Description : The Affordable Care Act was passed by Congress and then signed into law by the President on March 23, 2010. On June 28, 2012 the Supreme Court rendered a final decision to uphold the health care law. What Obamacare Means for You (according to www.whitehouse.gov)..."The Affordable Care Act - also known as Obamacare - means better coverage for those who already have health insurance, and more options for those who don't, including a new way to shop for affordable, high-quality coverage." Proceeds from the sale of this book are donated to help fund Wounded Warrior programs at locations such as Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland and Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany. "This is a big f---ing deal!" -Vice President Joe Biden This book is part 1 of 2. Check out all of our books at www.woundedwarriorpublications.com


Understanding Consumer Health Insurance Decision Making Under The Affordable Care Act

Author by : Petra Willis Rasmussen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Following the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), millions of Americans have gained coverage, many for the first time in their lives. The law has created more options for affordable coverage and put millions into the driver seat when it comes to selecting their coverage and enrolling in a health plan. The individual health insurance market has undergone significant changes under the ACA, including the creation of state-based and federally facilitated marketplaces where individuals in all states can go to shop for and enroll in potentially subsidized individual market coverage. This dissertation seeks to improve our understanding of consumer decision-making in this new health insurance landscape. Through three sets of analyses of consumer behavior during the insurance decision-making process, this dissertation will provide needed updates to the literature on this topic. It also highlights key considerations for policymakers and agencies to weigh when evaluating how consumers might respond to policies that change their available coverage options. The first paper examines two key components of health plans that individuals weigh when making enrollment decisions - cost and quality. The ACA requires both federally facilitated and state-based marketplaces to provide easy to understand plan quality information to customers shopping for coverage. Through two hypothetical choice experiments, this paper examines how consumers weighed health plan costs and quality in different choice environments and explored the consumer characteristics associated with a preference for high quality plans as well as with the selection of inferior plans. In each experiment, participants responded to a series of choice scenarios that asked them to choose between five health plans that differed only in their costs and quality ratings, represented by stars. Overall, between scenarios individuals were willing to pay more for higher quality plans when the quality ratings of all available plans were lower, when the higher quality plan's rating was two stars higher rather than one star higher than other plans, and when the price differential was lower. More risk averse participants had higher predicted probabilities of consistently choosing the higher quality, more expensive plan. However, a significant portion of the study population made poor decisions: more than a third of participants chose a dominated plan at least once. The less numerate, those with higher risk-seeking tendencies, and those with low health insurance literacy had the highest predicted probabilities of choosing poorly. The second experiment also found that individuals are more likely to choose a dominated plan when the quality star ratings are similar across plans. The second and third papers use data from California's health insurance marketplace, Covered California, to examine consumer behavior following the implementation of silver loading in 2018. Silver loading is a policy California and other states put into place after the cancellation of federal funding for a set of subsidies included in the ACA that reduce the amount of cost-sharing required by low-income enrollees in silver tier marketplace plans, known as cost-sharing reductions (CSRs). Silver loading placed the cost of providing CSRs in the absence of federal funding onto the premiums of silver plans, subsequently raising premium subsidies which are tied to the cost of silver coverage. The second paper focuses on enrollment in silver plans that became dominated because of silver loading. This paper looks at enrollment in these plans over time (both before and after they became dominated) and by enrollees' prior year enrollment decisions to examine differences in enrollment by pre-existing biases regarding metal tier labeling and the potential role of status quo bias. Overall, more than 60,000 Californians enrolled in a dominated plan in 2018 and, on average, households enrolled in dominated plans in 2018 spent an additional $38.87 per month in premiums. Households that were enrolled in silver coverage in the year before the examined silver plans became dominated had the highest predicted probability of enrolling in a dominated plan in 2018. The third paper examines Covered California consumers' decisions to switch health plans during open enrollment over the first four open enrollment periods where individuals could renew their coverage (2015-2018). Under the ACA, switching rates in the individual market have been much higher than those previously seen in other markets. Looking at re-enrollees in Covered California, this paper provides data on consumer switching behavior over time and identifies the consumer, plan, and choice environment characteristics associated with consumers' decisions to change their coverage during open enrollment. The percentage of re-enrollees in Covered California who made changes to their coverage steadily increased between the 2014-15 and 2017-18 open enrollment periods. Following the implementation of silver loading the proportion of consumers who moved into gold plans during the 2017-18 open enrollment period drastically increased, compared to previous years. Among bronze or silver plan enrollees who switched metal tiers during open enrollment, those who could enroll in gold plans that were no more than $49 per month more expensive than their initial bronze or silver plan had a significantly higher probability of switching into gold coverage than those who faced larger premium differences. The results of this dissertation identify several consumer, health plan, and choice environment characteristics that can influence consumer health insurance decision-making. Policymakers and marketplace regulators can use this work to help inform the decisions they make around marketplace choice architecture, policies aimed at retaining enrollees and recruiting new consumers, and decisions about re-enrollment for consumers who do not actively renew their coverage during annual re-enrollment periods.


Health Care Reform And American Politics

Author by : Lawrence Jacobs
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed by President Obama in March 2010 is a landmark in U.S. social legislation, and the Supreme Court's recent decision upholding the Act has ensured that it will remain the law of the land. The new law extends health insurance to nearly all Americans, fulfilling a century-long quest and bringing the United States to parity with other industrial nations. Affordable Care aims to control rapidly rising health care costs and promises to make the United States more equal, reversing four decades of rising disparities between the very rich and everyone else. Millions of people of modest means will gain new benefits and protections from insurance company abuses - and the tab will be paid by privileged corporations and the very rich. How did such a bold reform effort pass in a polity wracked by partisan divisions and intense lobbying by special interests? What does Affordable Care mean - and what comes next? In this updated edition of Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know®, Lawrence R. Jacobs and Theda Skocpol - two of the nation's leading experts on politics and health care policy - provide a concise and accessible overview. They explain the political battles of 2009 and 2010, highlighting White House strategies, the deals Democrats cut with interest groups, and the impact of agitation by Tea Partiers and progressives. Jacobs and Skocpol spell out what the new law can do for everyday Americans, what it will cost, and who will pay. In a new section, they also analyze the impact the Supreme Court ruling that upheld the law. Above all, they explain what comes next, as critical yet often behind-the-scenes battles rage over implementing reform nationally and in the fifty states. Affordable Care still faces challenges at the state level despite the Court ruling. But, like Social Security and Medicare, it could also gain strength and popularity as the majority of Americans learn what it can do for them.


Healthcare Changes And The Affordable Care Act

Author by : James S. Powers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : Healthcare Changes Reach Main Street: A Call to Action for Physicians provides guidance, examples, and information on processes and time lines for physicians based on the implementation of The Affordable Care Act (ACA) that was established in 2010. This volume focuses on how geriatricians and other healthcare professionals can be engaged in responding to the roll-out of the ACA in their communities, and through this engagement assume leadership roles in local hospitals, healthcare organizations, and medical societies to advance quality improvement and new models of care for older adults. In-depth chapters provide an update on quality improvement efforts at the state level, as well as changes in Medicaid financing and the significant impact this will have for older adults, particularly dual-eligibles. Many elements of the ACA are yet to be rolled out and many healthcare decisions are yet to be made. Healthcare Changes Reach Main Street: A Call to Action for Physicians will guide healthcare decision makers and help them to play a leadership role in advancing quality care for older adults in our changing healthcare environment.​


The Effect Of The Affordable Care Act On Enrollment And Premiums With And Without The Individual Mandate

Author by : Christine Eibner
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : This report describes the results of an analysis using RAND0́9s COMPARE (Comprehensive Assessment of Reform Efforts) microsimulation model to predict the effects of a possible Supreme Court decision invalidating the individual mandate provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 while keeping the other parts of the law intact. The authors predict the effects of such a decision on health insurance coverage overall and for subgroups based on income. They also estimate where people will obtain insurance in scenarios with and without the mandate and how the elimination of the individual mandate will affect insurance premiums. The analysis predicted that, if the individual mandate were to be eliminated: (1) 12.5 million people who would have otherwise signed up for coverage will be uninsured. (2) Premium prices in the non-group market will increase by 2.4 percent. (3) Total government spending will increase modestly, from $394 billion to $404 billion in 2016. (4) The amount of government spending per newly insured individual will more than double, from $3,659 to $7,468. The study estimates a smaller effect on premiums than comparable studies because the RAND team uses a method that accounts for the difference in the age composition of enrollees with and without the mandate.


Kaiser Public Opinion

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : In March, almost at the same time as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) marks its second anniversary, the Supreme Court is hearing cases challenging the constitutionality of parts of the law. While these events are milestones for those closely tracking the law's progress and implementation, the March Kaiser Health Tracking Poll found that many Americans feel like they do not have enough information about the law to understand how it will affect them and are not yet paying close attention to the Supreme Court case. Possibly as a result, a relatively small share thinks the Supreme Court's decision will have a lot of impact on their family (28 percent). At the same time, the public is divided as to whether the law overall will leave their own families better off (26 percent), worse off (33 percent), or if it won't make much difference (34 percent). Because certain groups of the population, such as the uninsured and those with modest incomes, stand to benefit more than others from the law's provisions, particularly the Medicaid expansion and subsidies to purchase coverage, this Data Note examines people's impressions of how the law and the Court case will affect them, focusing primarily on those groups that are in the position to receive the greatest benefits. For the most part, those that stand to benefit most are not more likely than others to expect to be better off under the law, or to feel that the Supreme Court's decision will have a major impact on their own families.


The Trillion Dollar Revolution

Author by : Ezekiel J. Emanuel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hachette UK
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Description : Ten years after the landmark legislation, Ezekiel Emanuel leads a crowd of experts, policy-makers, doctors, and scholars as they evaluate the Affordable Care Act's history so far. In March 2010, the Affordable Care Act officially became one of the seminal laws determining American health care. From day one, the law was challenged in court, making it to the Supreme Court four separate times. It transformed the way a three-trillion-dollar sector of the economy behaved and brought insurance to millions of people. It spawned the Tea Party, further polarized American politics, and affected the electoral fortunes of both parties. Ten years after the bill's passage, a constellation of experts--insiders and academics for and against the ACA--describe the momentousness of the legislation. Encompassing Democrats and Republicans, along with legal, financial, and health policy experts, the essays here offer a fascinating and revealing insight into the political fight of a generation, its consequences for health care, politics, law, the economy-and the future.


Medicaid Expansion Under The Affordable Care Act

Author by : Gail Norman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
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Description : Historically, Medicaid eligibility has generally been limited to certain low-income children, pregnant women, parents of dependent children, the elderly, and individuals with disabilities; however, as of January 1, 2014, states have the option to extend Medicaid coverage to most nonelderly, low-income individuals. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL) as the new mandatory minimum Medicaid income eligibility level for most nonelderly individuals. This book provides an overview of the ACA Medicaid expansion, and the impact of the Supreme Court decision on the ACA Medicaid expansion. Then, the book describes who is covered under the expansion, the expansion rules, and how the expansion is financed. In addition, enrollment and expenditure estimates for the ACA Medicaid expansion are provided. The book reviews state decisions whether or not to implement the ACA Medicaid expansion, and the implications of those decisions on certain individuals, employers, and hospitals.


What A Supreme Court Decision To Eliminate The Individual Mandate Could Mean For Coverage And Costs

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The U.S. Supreme Court is expected to rule soon on the constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act's individual mandate. Without the mandate, the ACA would be less effective in reducing the number of uninsured and cutting the cost of uncompensated care. However, even if the High Court rejects the mandate, policies such as late enrollment penalties and excluding care for pre-existing conditions for a period of time could preserve high levels of coverage in the ACA.


Shared Decision Making In Health Care

Author by : Glyn Elwyn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Over the past decade health care systems around the world have placed increasing importance on the relationship between patient choice and clinical decision-making. In the years since the publication of the second edition of Shared Decision Making in Health Care, there have been significant new developments in the field, most notably in the US where 'Obamacare' puts shared decision making (SDM) at the centre of the 2009 Affordable Care Act. This new edition explores shared decision making by examining, from practical and theoretical perspectives, what should comprise an effective decision-making process. It also looks at the benefits and potential difficulties that arise when patients and clinicians share health care decisions. Written by leading experts from around the world and utilizing high quality evidence, the book provides an up-to-date reference with real-word context to the topics discussed, and in-depth coverage of the practicalities of implementing and teaching SDM. The breadth of information in Shared Decision Making in Health Care makes it an essential resource for policy-makers and health care workers. As health care systems adapt to increasingly collaborative patient-clinician care frameworks, this will also prove a useful guide to SDM for clinicians of all disciplines.


The Tough Luck Constitution And The Assault On Health Care Reform

Author by : Andrew Koppelman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Description : Chief Justice John Roberts stunned the nation by upholding the Affordable Care Act--more commonly known as Obamacare. But legal experts observed that the decision might prove a strategic defeat for progressives. Roberts grounded his decision on Congress's power to tax. He dismissed the claim that it is allowed under the Constitution's commerce clause, which has been the basis of virtually all federal regulation--now thrown in doubt. In The Tough Luck Constitution and the Assault on Health Care Reform, Andrew Koppelman explains how the Court's conservatives embraced the arguments of a fringe libertarian legal movement bent on eviscerating the modern social welfare state. They instead advocate what Koppelman calls a "tough luck" philosophy: if you fall on hard times, too bad for you. He argues that the rule they proposed--that the government can't make citizens buy things--has nothing to do with the Constitution, and that it is in fact useless to stop real abuses of power, as it was tailor-made to block this one law after its opponents had lost in the legislature. He goes on to dismantle the high court's construction of the commerce clause, arguing that it almost crippled America's ability to reverse rising health-care costs and shrinking access. Koppelman also places the Affordable Care Act within a broader historical context. The Constitution was written to increase central power, he notes, after the failure of the Articles of Confederation. The Supreme Court's previous limitations on Congressional power have proved unfortunate: it has struck down anti-lynching laws, civil-rights protections, and declared that child-labor laws would end "all freedom of commerce, and . . . our system of government [would] be practically destroyed." Both somehow survived after the court revisited these precedents. Koppelman notes that the arguments used against Obamacare are radically new--not based on established constitutional principles. Ranging from early constitutional history to potential consequences, this is the definitive postmortem of this landmark case.


The Affordable Care Act And The Market For Higher Education

Author by : Rajashri Chakrabarti
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 57
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Description : Through changing the connection between insurance and employment, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has affected people's incentives to obtain education. We employ a triple-difference strategy comparing counties with different levels of uninsurance pre-ACA and in states with different Medicaid expansion decisions across time to investigate changes in enrollment in different types of higher education institutions. We find that enrollment in less than 2-year forprofit colleges increased more between high- and low-uninsurance counties in states that expanded Medicaid relative to states that didn't, with nearly all the increase taking place after the 2012 Supreme Court decision that gave states the right to choose not to expand Medicaid. Differential enrollment is at for all other comparable college types. We find this differential increase in less than 2-year for-profit college enrollment to be remarkably general across various demographic groups, although the effect is statistically and economically more significant for Hispanics. Studying effects on certificates awarded, we find strong evidence that the increase in enrollment led to an increase in certificates awarded, most prominently in vocational fields. This pattern is consistent with the notion that by relaxing job-lock, the ACA encouraged individuals to seek training in vocational fields that would facilitate employment in low-insurance industries. Our results are robust to controlling for confounders such as the differential impact of the Great Recession, changes in state appropriations for higher education, differences in age composition across counties, thus ruling out the role of the young adult provision of the ACA in contributing to our results, and survive a plethora of sensitivity checks.