Description : Canada and the United States signed the Automotive Products Trade Agreement (Auto Pact) in 1965, thus resolving a competitive crisis in Canada's auto industry and extending that industry's vitality for another 35 years, until a decision of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in February 2000 determined that the Pact violated international trading rules. Following an unsuccessful appeal by Canada to the WTO's Appellate Body, the pact formally came to an end in February 2001. For policymakers and scholars concerned with international trade, the story of the Pact presents a fascinating case in its own right. The great value of this remarkable book, however, is its elucidation of the main issue underlying the Pact and its forced ending: the relationship between international trade rules on the one hand and investment measures intended to encourage local economic activity on the other. In this connection the Canadian auto industry and centered in Windsor, Ontario, directly across the river from Detroit, the heart of the industry in the U.S.and offers an intensely concentrated sample of the triple nexus of investment, labour and trade that lies at the core of economic development worldwide. Sixteen expert authors, both practitioners and academics, here open perspectives on this nexus that are of profound significance for the future of international trade. These encompass such matters as the following: andthe vulnerabilities of a local community dependent on trade and open borders; andlabour union tensions engendered by trade rule 'levelling' that takes little or no account of national or local economic realities; andimplications for developing countries of the WTO finding that a production-to-sales ratio is a prohibited export subsidy; andthe impact of Mexico's role under NAFTA on the Canadian auto industry; national and local regulation of government subsidies intended to attract investment; andongoing multinational efforts to create a multilateral regime to protect and regulate foreign direct investment; and andthe persistent failure of the WTO to reach a consensus on labour standards despite the clear provisions of major international law instruments. All these issues and more are brought into sharp focus by the history of the Auto Pact and the implications of its demise. For this reason, this collection of insightful essays will be of incomparable value to professionals in every area of international trade. The Auto Pact: Investment, Labour and the WTO was produced with the support of the Canadian-American Research Centre for Law and Policy at the Faculty of Law, University of Windsor.
Description : Abstract: Rationalization and stabilization following the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s combined with the expansion and liberalization of regional and global trade to create significant parts industries in China, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea. Conventional policies of stabilization and liberalization, however, cannot fully explain growth patterns. Japan and Korea grew into major players before liberalizing trade and investment, while even after extensive liberalization Indonesia has yet to move from extensive to intensive growth. These anomalies suggest that to explain success in the auto parts industry we need to move beyond liberalization to look at policies and institutions promoting economies of scale, skill formation, quality upgrading, supplier-linkage cooperation, and innovation. In Japan, the regional and global leader, innovative assemblers led industrial development and supported key suppliers, but the government also supported diffusion of quality control techniques and new technology to small and medium enterprises, and encouraged stable employment among core employees. Korea remains weaker on both small and medium enterprise and employment fronts, but government-encouraged consolidation around a small number of business groups, an extended period of protection, and support for export promotion led to economies of scale. Liberalization of foreign investment after the financial crisis helped ameliorate the excessive statism of earlier policies and strengthened the parts industry. In China, liberalization for WTO entry, rapid expansion in demand, and strong support by local governments encouraged a wave of foreign investment in both assembly and parts. In contrast, institutional weaknesses continue to constrain development opportunities in Indonesia.
Description : Describes work organization, skill formation, remuneration systems, staffing arrangements and employment security, and enterprise governance and employee-management relations in seven countries: the United States, Australia, Germany, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, and China.
Description : This feminist literary study discusses postmodern ideas about the self, particularly about the way in which selves are constructed by biography and autobiography. The author particularly examines the manner in which women write about themselves.
Description : During the 1980s the news media were filled with reports of soaring unemployment as 'downsizing' and `restructuring' became the new buzzwords. Firms managed their workforce reduction by increasing the attractiveness of their pension plans-especially their early-retirement plans. In this volume, the authors examine the U.S. auto industry and present a full-scale analysis of the work and retirement decisions of its workers. They address organizational context and the logic of financial incentives in employer-provided early retirement plans. The impact of pension provisions, layoffs, plant closures, attitudes about `generational equity', and other factors influencing the workers' evaluation of the optimum time to end their careers in the auto industry are explored.
Description : Analyzes the geography of the auto parts sector in North America. Drawing on a large plant-level data set, it shows an industry that is very spatially concentrated. Formal models of plant location highlight the role of transportation infrastructure as well as the importance of being within a day¿s drive of the assembly plant customer in the location choices of auto supplier plants. Tables.