Description : Many people in the past – perhaps a majority – were poor. Tracing our ancestors amongst them involves consulting a wide range of sources. Stuart Raymond’s handbook is the ideal guide to them. He examines the history of the poor and how they survived. Some were supported by charity. A few were lucky enough to live in an almshouse. Many had to depend on whatever the poor law overseers gave them. Others were forced into the Union workhouse. Some turned to a life of crime. Vagrants were whipped and poor children were apprenticed by the overseers or by a charity. Paupers living in the wrong place were forcibly ‘removed’ to their parish of settlement. Many parishes and charities offered them the chance to emigrate to North America or Australia. As a result there are many places where information can be found about the poor. Stuart Raymond describes them all: the records of charities, of the poor law overseers, of poor law unions, of Quarter Sessions, of bankruptcy, and of friendly societies. He suggests many other potential sources of information in record offices, libraries, and on the internet.
Description : International in perspective, the essays in this volume are primarily concerned with two facets of the mixed economy of welfare--charity and mutual aid. Emphasizing the close relationship between these two elements and the often blurred boundaries between each of them and commercial provision, contributors raise crucial questions about the relationship between rights and responsibilities within the mixed economy of welfare and the ties which bind both the donors and recipients of charity and the members of voluntary organisations. The volume critically assesses the relationships between the statutory and voluntary sectors in a variety of national settings, including Britain, the United States, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Canada, and Germany during the last two hundred and fifty years, making the book as topical as it is significant.
Description : The purpose of this book is to produce what is essentially a 'home front' study of Ireland during the Crimean War, or more specifically Irish society's responses to that conflict. This will principally complement the existing research on Irish servicemen's experiences during and after the campaign, but will also substantially develop the limited work already undertaken on Irish society and the conflict. This book primarily encompasses the years of the conflict, from its origins in the 1853 dispute between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over the Holy Places, through the French and British political and later military interventions in 1854-5, to the victory, peace and homecoming celebrations in 1856. Additionally, it will extend into the preceding and succeeding decades in order to contextualise the events and actors of the wartime years and to present and analyse the commemoration and memorialisation processes. The approach of the study is systematic, with the content being correlated under six convenient and coherent themes, which will be analysed through a chronological process. The book covers all of the major aspects of society and life in Ireland during the period, so as to give the most complete analysis of the various impacts of and people's responses to the war. This study is also conducted, within the broader contexts not only of the responses of the United Kingdom and broader British Empire but also Ireland's relationship with those political entities, and within Ireland's post-famine or mid-Victorian and even wider nineteenth-century history.