The Complex Interplay Between Gut Brain Gut Liver and Liver Brain Axes

The Complex Interplay Between Gut Brain  Gut Liver  and Liver Brain Axes
Author: Cristina Stasi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2021-04-06
ISBN: 0128219289
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Complex Interplay Between Gut Brain Gut Liver and Liver Brain Axes Book Excerpt:

The Complex Interplay Between Gut–Brain, Gut–Liver, and Liver–Brain Axes provides current and wide-ranging information in the field of gastrointestinal, liver, and brain interactions that can be used in resolving important clinical issues. This book is systematically split into three distinct sections. The first section introduces the pathophysiology of the gut–brain connection, including the causative effect of the interactions between the gut and brain in gastrointestinal and psychiatric/neurological disorders, and the role of serotonin and its pathways in gastrointestinal disorders. The second section examines the pathophysiology of the gut–liver connection along with the interactions between gut microbiota and liver in chronic liver diseases, with special focus on the role of serotonin and its pathways in hepatic fibrogenesis. Finally, the third section describes the pathophysiology of the liver–brain connection, including the role of gut microbiota in hepatic encephalopathy, as well as dietary and therapeutic interventions that target the gut microbiome. Provides current and wide-ranging knowledge in the field of gastrointestinal, liver, and brain interactions. Resolves important clinical issues concerning gut, liver, and brain interactions. Demonstrates advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Disorders

Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Disorders
Author: Anastasios Koulaouzidis,Wojciech Marlicz
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 146
Release: 2021-01-27
ISBN: 3039438735
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diagnosis and Treatment of Small Bowel Disorders Book Excerpt:

Over the last few decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the aetiology and pathophysiology of diseases and many new theories emphasize the importance of the small bowel ‘ecosystem’ in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic illness. Emerging factors such as microbiome, stem cells, innate intestinal immunity and the enteric nervous system along with mucosal and endothelial barriers have key role in the development of gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Therefore, the small intestine is considered key player in metabolic disease development, including diabetes mellitus, and other diet-related disorders such as celiac and non-celiac enteropathies. Another major field is drug metabolism and its interaction with microbiota. Moreover, the emergence of gut-brain, gut-liver and gut-blood barriers points toward the important role of small intestine in the pathogenesis of common disorders, such as liver disease, hypertension and neurodegenerative disease. However, the small bowel remains an organ that is difficult to fully access and assess and accurate diagnosis often poses a clinical challenge. Eventually, the therapeutic potential remains untapped. Therefore, it is due time to direct our interest towards the small intestine and unravel the interplay between small-bowel and other gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI related maladies.

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology  The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease
Author: Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2014-07-05
ISBN: 1493908979
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

Functional and GI Motility Disorders

Functional and GI Motility Disorders
Author: E.M.M. Quigleyy,M. Hongo,S. Fukudo
Publsiher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2014-03-25
ISBN: 3318025798
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional and GI Motility Disorders Book Excerpt:

The clinical problems and dilemmas which the busy clinician encounters on a daily basis are the main focus of this publication. Emphasizing a clinical rather than a pathophysiological approach to problems, it facilitates access and helps the practicing clinician to develop an effective and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Nevertheless, clinically important aspects of pathophysiology are also dealt with in detail when called for. A variety of scenarios that are especially relevant to modern medical practice, such as the intensive care unit, are taken into account. A group of internationally renowned experts guides the reader through the broad variety of diagnostic options available to assist in the assessment of symptoms originating anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, from the esophagus to the anus, and, in each instance, every effort is made to critically appraise the technology discussed. Moreover, general overviews of broadly relevant therapeutic approaches are also provided.

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases
Author: Gwendolyn Barcel´o-Coblijn,Amedeo Amedei
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2019-11-06
ISBN: 3039216465
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases Book Excerpt:

[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Probiotics in Mental Health

Probiotics in Mental Health
Author: Colin R. Martin,Derek Larkin
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2018-05-30
ISBN: 1466573570
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Probiotics in Mental Health Book Excerpt:

The concept that the gut and brain are intricately linked is widely accepted not just within the lay community but increasingly within scientific and therapeutic circles as well. Terms such as "heartache" and "gut wrenching" are more than mere metaphor, they represent key fundamental aspects of human experience which all individuals will invariably endure from time to time. The relationship between the gut and brain is complex but fundamental to health and wellbeing. Increasing and compelling evidence supports the existence of a relationship between the health and status of the gut and the manifestation of significant psychopathology. Uniquely within the field of mental health and psychiatry, the role of gut flora and probiotics in both the understanding and treatment of mental illness represents an emerging science whether the potential for therapeutic intervention, through the use of probiotics, offers an opportunity to determine efficacy within a coherent evidence-based model of both action and pathology or, moreover, offers interventions that are comparatively benign compared to the side-effect profile associated with most drugs used to treat mental illness. Probiotics in Mental Health examines the role of probiotics in a range of clinical presentations associated with significant psychopathology and facilitates a reconsideration of how mental illness may be conceptualised within a coherent gut-brain model of health and wellbeing. Under the rubric of enhancing wellbeing rather than dwelling on illness and disease, this exciting new volume not only comprises the latest evidence in the field but also advocates an approach characterised by the understanding of mental disorder within an evidence-based model and the pursuit of mental health and wellbeing through the most benign of interventions.

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2017-03-17
ISBN: 0128119179
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research Book Excerpt:

Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 81 provides updated knowledge on nutrients in foods and how to avoid deficiencies, paying special attention to the essential nutrients that should be present in the diet to reduce disease risk and optimize health. The series provides the latest advances on the identification and characterization of emerging bioactive compounds with putative health benefits, as well as up-to-date information on food science, including raw materials, production, processing, distribution, and consumption. Contains contributions that have been carefully selected based on their vast experience and expertise on the subject Includes updated, in-depth, and critical discussions of available information, giving the reader a unique opportunity to learn Encompasses a broad view of the topics at hand

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease
Author: Martin Kussmann,Patrick J. Stover
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 344
Release: 2017-03-21
ISBN: 1119101263
Category: Technology & Engineering
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Now in a revised second edition, Nutrigenomics and Proteomics in Health and Disease brings together the very latest science based upon nutrigenomics and proteomics in food and health. Coverage includes many important nutraceuticals and their impact on gene interaction and health. Authored by an international team of multidisciplinary researchers, this book acquaints food and nutrition professionals with these new fields of nutrition research and conveys the state of the science to date. Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in the field, the second edition includes six new chapters covering gut health and the personal microbiome; gut microbe-derived bioactive metabolites; proteomics and peptidomics in nutrition; gene selection for nutrigenomic studies; gene-nutrient network analysis, and nutrigenomics to nutritional systems biology. An additional five chapters have also been significantly remodelled. The new text includes a rethinking of in vitro and in vivo models with regard to their translatability into human phenotypes, and normative science methods and approaches have been complemented by more comprehensive systems biology-based investigations, deploying a multitude of omic platforms in an integrated fashion. Innovative tools and methods for statistical treatment and biological network analysis are also now included.

The Human Gut Liver Axis in Health and Disease

The Human Gut Liver Axis in Health and Disease
Author: Aleksander Krag,Torben Hansen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2018-11-09
ISBN: 3319988905
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Human Gut Liver Axis in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

The book brings together the current knowledge and future perspectives of the complex physiology and pathophysiology of gut-liver interactions in health and disease. It provides readers with a unique overview and access to knowledge that cannot be obtained elsewhere. The structure is logical and covers all aspect including the normal physiology, changes in various liver diseases, technology, sample collection and various interventions. Thus suitable for general reading, lookup for specific questions or as a reference book within the area. The book allows the reader to access all the knowledge that has been generated within the last 10 years in this field.

Psychology for Medicine and Healthcare

Psychology for Medicine and Healthcare
Author: Susan Ayers,Richard de Visser
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2021-04-24
ISBN: 1529760534
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychology for Medicine and Healthcare Book Excerpt:

A comprehensive overview of the research, theory, application and current practices in the field of psychology for medicine and healthcare, covering topics from epigenetics to social determinants of health and transdiagnostic approaches to mental health and everything in between.

Psychology for Medicine

Psychology for Medicine
Author: Susan Ayers,Richard de Visser
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2011-07-08
ISBN: 1446259501
Category: Psychology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychology for Medicine Book Excerpt:

"As the fundamental importance of psychological aspects of medical practice becomes ever more evident, and a correspondingly greater knowledge of psychology is required of medical graduates, books like this one must become essential reading for all medical students." - Michael Sharpe MD, FRCP FRCPsych, Professor of Psychological Medicine, University of Edinburgh "It′s a great textbook, the application to Medicine is nicely outlined and the case studies illustrating the points further are brilliant. It′s easy to read and follow and really highlights the importance of Psychology in Medicine. I will definitely be recommending this text to my students!" - Dr Harbinder Sandhu, Health Psychology Institute of Clinical Education, University of Warwick This first-of-its-kind, comprehensive textbook covers all the psychology an undergraduate medical student needs to know. The authors show the importance of applied psychological theory and evidence to medicine, and offer enough depth on the subject to span an entire degree. Split into four sections, the book is a unique mix of psychological theory and evidence with implications for clinical practice, clinical tips and case studies. Psychology and Health: covers core topics such as stress, symptom perception, health behaviour and chronic illness. Basic Foundations of Psychology: explores areas of biological, developmental, cognitive and social psychology relevant to medicine. Body Systems: psychological research specific to body systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, immunology and reproduction. Health-Care Practice covers clinical skills and practice, including chapters on evidence-based medicine, communication skills and psychological intervention. With a full colour text design, each chapter follows the same accessible format which includes summaries, learning objectives, case studies, research examples, applications to clinical practice, further reading and short answer questions. They include the latest psychological theory and research evidence.

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease
Author: Bryan Tungland
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 680
Release: 2018-05-25
ISBN: 0128146508
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Microbiota in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

Human Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapy is a comprehensive discussion on all the aspects associated with the early colonization of gut microbiota, its development and maintenance, and its symbiotic relationship with the host in promoting health. Chapters illustrate the complex mechanisms and metabolic signaling pathways related to how the gut microbiota maintain proper regulation of glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis and immune response, all while mediating inflammatory processes involved in the etiology of many chronic disease conditions. With today's common use of pharmaceutical medicine in treating symptoms and frequent overuse of antibiotics in chronic disease within mainstream medical practice, our understanding of the etiological mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced chronic disease and natural approaches to prevention and potential cures for these diseases is of vital importance to overall human health. Details the complex relationship between human microbiota in the gut, oral cavity and skin as well as their colonization, development and impact of factors that influence the relationship Illustrates the mechanisms associated with dysbiosis-associated inflammation and its role in the onset and progression in chronic disease Provides the primary mechanisms and comprehensive scientific evidence for the use of dietary modification and pro- and prebiotics in preventing chronic disease

Human gut microbiota onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations

Human gut microbiota  onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations
Author: Lorenza Putignani
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 2889190870
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human gut microbiota onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations Book Excerpt:

Probiotics and its Effects on Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders

Probiotics and its Effects on Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders
Author: Helioswilton Sales-Campos,Siomar De Castro Soares,Marcela Santiago Pacheco de Azevedo
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-03-28
ISBN: 2889748243
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Probiotics and its Effects on Inflammatory and Infectious Disorders Book Excerpt:

Wound Healing Research

Wound Healing Research
Author: Prasun Kumar,Vijay Kothari
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 694
Release: 2021-07-20
ISBN: 9811626774
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wound Healing Research Book Excerpt:

This book presents the latest knowledge on both the physiological and the microbiological aspects of wound healing. Fresh insights into the process of cutaneous wound healing are described, which involves tissue regeneration and repair processes consisting of a sequence of molecular and cellular events. The management of infected wounds is then discussed in detail, covering the roles of traditional medicine practices, novel anti-infective formulations, non-antibiotic approaches, and probiotic bacteria. A section devoted to the interdisciplinary approach to wound care addresses topics including in vitro and in vivo research models, the development of advanced wound dressings, tissue engineering, and the potential applications of bioscaffolds. The authors are all leading researchers in the field. This book is an attempt to showcase current research status and future directions in the area of wound-healing research, which must be of interest to a large group of readers and researchers interested in this field.

Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Author: Olga Bednarska
Publsiher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Total Pages: 95
Release: 2019-05-07
ISBN: 9176850935
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Book Excerpt:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic visceral pain disorder with female predominance, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits in the absence of an identifiable organic cause. This prevalent and debilitating disease, which accounts for a substantial economic and individual burden, lacks exact diagnostic tools and effective treatment, since its pathophysiology remains uncertain. The bidirectional and multilayered brain-gut axis is a well-established disease model, however, the interactions between central and peripheral mechanisms along the brain-gut axis remain incompletely understood. One of the welldescribed triggering factors, yet accounting for only a fraction of IBS prevalence, is bacterial gastroenteritis that affects mucosal barrier function. Altered gut microbiota composition as well as disturbed intestinal mucosal barrier function and its neuroimmune regulation have been reported in IBS, however, the impact of live bacteria, neither commensal nor pathogenic, on intestinal barrier has not been studied yet. Furthermore, abnormal central processing of visceral sensations and psychological factors such as maladaptive coping have previously been suggested as centrally-mediated pathophysiological mechanisms of importance in IBS. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated an imbalance in descending pain modulatory networks and alterations in brain regions associated with interoceptive awareness and pain processing and modulation, particularly in anterior insula (aINS), although biochemical changes putatively underlying these central alterations remain poorly understood. Most importantly, however, possible associations between these documented changes on central and peripheral levels, which may as complex interactions contribute to disease onset and chronification of symptoms, are widely unknown. This thesis aimed to investigate the peripheral and central mechanisms in women with IBS compared to female healthy controls (HC) and to explore possible mutual associations between these mechanisms. In Paper I, we studied paracellular permeability and passage of live bacteria, both commensal and pathogenic through colonic biopsies mounted in Ussing chambers. We explored the regulation of the mucosal barrier function by mast cells and the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as well as a correlation between mucosal permeability and gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms. We observed increased paracellular permeability and the passage of commensal and pathogenic live bacteria in patients with IBS compared with HC, which was diminished by blocking the VIP receptors as well as after stabilizing mast cells in both groups. Moreover, higher paracellular permeability was associated with less somatic and psychological symptoms in patients. In Paper II, we aimed to determine the association between colonic mucosa paracellular permeability and structural and resting state functional brain connectivity. We demonstrated different patterns of associations between mucosa permeability and functional and structural brain connectivity in IBS patients compared to HC. Specifically, lower paracellular permeability in IBS, similar to the levels detected in HC, was associated with more severe IBS symptoms and increased functional and structural connectivity between intrinsic brain resting state network and descending pain modulation brain regions. Our findings further suggested that this association between mucosa permeability and functional brain connectivity was mainly mediated by coping strategies. In Paper III, we investigated putative alterations in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission of aINS, as the brain’s key node of the salience network crucially involved in cognitive control, in IBS patients relative to HC and addressed possible connections with both symptoms and psychological factors. We found decreased concentrations of the excitatory neurotransmitter Glx in bilateral aINS in IBS patients compared to HC, while inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA+ levels were comparable. Further, we demonstrated hemisphere-specific associations between abdominal pain, coping and aINS excitatory neurotransmitter concentration. In conclusion, this thesis broadens the knowledge on peripheral and central mechanisms in IBS and presents novel findings that bring together the ends of brain-gut axis. Our results depict association between mucosal permeability, IBS symptoms and functional and structural connectivity engaging brain regions involved in emotion and pain modulation as well as underlying neurotransmitter alterations.

Bridging Research Disciplines to Advance Animal Welfare Science

Bridging Research Disciplines to Advance Animal Welfare Science
Author: Irene Camerlink
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2021-11-05
ISBN: 1789247888
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bridging Research Disciplines to Advance Animal Welfare Science Book Excerpt:

In recent years there has been a huge rise in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research in animal sciences which has accelerated improvements in animal welfare. Down to earth and practical, this book gives guidance on how cross-disciplinary research can advance animal welfare. The aim of the book is to help researchers and graduate animal science students to understand how to advance animal welfare through the integration of disciplines.

Interplay of Infection and Microbiome

Interplay of Infection and Microbiome
Author: Wilhelmina May Huston,Gilda Tachedjian,Peter Timms
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-08-06
ISBN: 2889639266
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interplay of Infection and Microbiome Book Excerpt:

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book
Author: Robert Wyllie,Jeffrey S. Hyams
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 1104
Release: 2010-11-29
ISBN: 1437735665
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease E Book Book Excerpt:

Pediatric Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, by Drs. Robert Wyllie and Jeffrey S. Hyams provides the comprehensive reference you need to treat GI diseases in children. Review the latest developments in the field and get up-to-date clinical information on hot topics like polyps, capsule endoscopy, and pancreatic treatments. With expert guidance from an expanded international author base and online access to 475 board-review-style questions, this latest edition is a must-have for every practicing gastroenterologist. Confirm each diagnosis by consulting a section, organized by symptoms, that presents the full range of differential diagnoses and treatment options for each specific condition. Recognize disease processes at a glance with detailed diagrams that accurately illustrate complex concepts. Stay current with advances in the field by reviewing new chapters on Polyps and Polyposis Syndromes, Capsule Endoscopy and Small Bowel Enteroscopy, Small Bowel Transplantation, IBD, Short Gut Syndrome, Steatosis and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and Pancreatic and Islet Cell Transplants. Gain fresh global perspectives from an expanded list of expert international contributors. Sharpen your visual recognition by accessing a color-plate section that displays additional endoscopy images. Prepare for certification or recertification with 475 online board review-style questions, answers, and rationales.

Developing Successful Neuroprotective Treatments for TBI Translational Approaches Novel Directions Opportunities and Challenges

Developing Successful Neuroprotective Treatments for TBI  Translational Approaches  Novel Directions  Opportunities and Challenges
Author: Stefania Mondello,Anwarul Hasan,Deborah Shear
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-02-03
ISBN: 2889634493
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developing Successful Neuroprotective Treatments for TBI Translational Approaches Novel Directions Opportunities and Challenges Book Excerpt: