The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms
Author: Subir Ranjan Kundu
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 266
Release: 2021-03-23
ISBN: 0128232838
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms Book Excerpt:

The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms offers a thorough and detailed narration of the journey of biological evolution and its major transitional links to the biological world, which began with paleontological exploration of extinct organisms and now carries on with reviews of phylogenomic footprint reviews of extant, living fossils. This book moves through the defining evolutionary stepping stones starting with the evolutionary changes in prokaryotic, aquatic organisms over 4 billion years ago to the emergence of the modern human species in Earth’s Anthropocene. The book begins with an overview of the processes of evolutionary fitness, the epicenter of the principles of evolutionary biology. Whether through natural or experimental occurrence, evolutionary fitness has been found to be the cardinal instance of evolutionary links in an organism between its ancestral and contemporary states. The book then goes on to detail evolutionary trails and lineages of groups of organisms including mammalians, reptilians, and various fish. The final section of the book provides a look back at the evolutionary journey of "nonliving" or extinct organisms, versus the modern-day transition to "living" or extant organisms. The Evolutionary Biology of Extinct and Extant Organisms is the ideal resource for any researcher or advanced student in evolutionary studies, ranging from evolutionary biology to general life sciences. Provides an updated compendium of evolution research history Details the evolution trails of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, arthropods, annelids, mollusks, protozoa, and more Offers an accessible and easy-to-read presentation of complex, in-depth evolutionary biology facts and theories

Macroevolution in Deep Time

Macroevolution in Deep Time
Author: Rituparna Bose,Alexander J. Bartholomew
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 59
Release: 2013-01-26
ISBN: 1461464765
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macroevolution in Deep Time Book Excerpt:

The prerequisite to investigating the underlying causes behind mass extinction is a profound understanding of the evolutionary history of both living and dead species. It is especially important to appreciate the significance of such studies in extinct organisms; especially in organisms that were abundant in a certain geologic era, but have subsequently dwindled or become extinct. Such studies should help to accurately evaluate patterns of evolution in extinct species lineages and help predict the same in its modern analogs. The book includes cutting edge research in evolutionary biology that should serve as a starting point for conservation. ​

Embryos in Deep Time

Embryos in Deep Time
Author: Marcelo Sánchez-Villagra
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 265
Release: 2012-04-03
ISBN: 0520952308
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Embryos in Deep Time Book Excerpt:

How can we bring together the study of genes, embryos and fossils? Embryos in Deep Time is a critical synthesis of the study of individual development in fossils. It brings together an up-to-date review of concepts from comparative anatomy, ecology and developmental genetics, and examples of different kinds of animals from diverse geological epochs and geographic areas. Can fossil embryos demonstrate evolutionary changes in reproductive modes? How have changes in ocean chemistry in the past affected the development of marine organisms? What can the microstructure of fossil bone and teeth reveal about maturation time, longevity and changes in growth phases? This book addresses these and other issues and documents with numerous examples and illustrations how fossils provide evidence not only of adult anatomy but also of the life history of individuals at different growth stages. The central topic of Biology today—the transformations occurring during the life of an organism and the mechanisms behind them—is addressed in an integrative manner for extinct animals.

Time Traveler

Time Traveler
Author: Michael Novacek
Publsiher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2003-03-15
ISBN: 1429935731
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Time Traveler Book Excerpt:

Hunting for fossils with a preeminent guide and teacher Michael Novacek, a world-renowned paleontologist who has discovered important fossils on virtually every continent, is an authority on patterns of evolution and on the relationships among extinct and extant organisms. Time Traveler is his captivating account of how his boyhood enthusiasm for dinosaurs became a lifelong commitment to vanguard science. He takes us with him as he discovers fossils in his own backyard in Los Angeles, then goes looking for them in the high Andes, the black volcanic mountains of Yemen, and the incredibly rich fossil badlands of the Gobi desert. Wherever Novacek goes he searches for still undiscovered evidence of what life was like on Earth millions of years ago. Along the way he has almost drowned, been stung by deadly scorpions, been held at gunpoint by a renegade army, and nearly choked in raging dust storms. Fieldwork is very demanding in a host of unusual, dramatic, sometimes hilarious ways, and Novacek writes of its alluring perils with affection and discernment. But Time Traveler also makes sense of many complex themes - about dinosaur evolution, continental drift, mass extinctions, new methods for understanding ancient environments, and the evolutionary secrets of DNA in fossil organisms. It is also an enthralling adventure story.

The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs

The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs
Author: David E. Fastovsky,David B. Weishampel
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 485
Release: 2005-02-07
ISBN: 9780521811729
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs Book Excerpt:

This is a comprehensive 2005 book is simply the best textbook on dinosaurs available.

Predation in Organisms

Predation in Organisms
Author: Ashraf M.T. Elewa
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 311
Release: 2007-01-10
ISBN: 3540460462
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Predation in Organisms Book Excerpt:

Predation is considered one of the distinct phenomena related to the interrelationships between species on the Earth. In general, predation is widespread not only in wildlife but also in marine environments where big fishes eat small fishes and other organisms of the sea. This book considers predation in organisms and is aimed at the prevention of predation in wildlife and marine environments.

The Timetree of Life

The Timetree of Life
Author: S. Blair Hedges,Sudhir Kumar
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2009-04-23
ISBN: 019160898X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Timetree of Life Book Excerpt:

The evolutionary history of life includes two primary components: phylogeny and timescale. Phylogeny refers to the branching order (relationships) of species or other taxa within a group and is crucial for understanding the inheritance of traits and for erecting classifications. However, a timescale is equally important because it provides a way to compare phylogeny directly with the evolution of other organisms and with planetary history such as geology, climate, extraterrestrialimpacts, and other features.The Timetree of Life is the first reference book to synthesize the wealth of information relating to the temporal component of phylogenetic trees. In the past, biologists have relied exclusively upon the fossil record to infer an evolutionary timescale. However, recent revolutionary advances in molecular biology have made it possible to not only estimate the relationships of many groups of organisms, but also to estimate their times of divergence with molecular clocks. The routineestimation and utilization of these so-called 'time-trees' could add exciting new dimensions to biology including enhanced opportunities to integrate large molecular data sets with fossil and biogeographic evidence (and thereby foster greater communication between molecular and traditional systematists). Theycould help estimate not only ancestral character states but also evolutionary rates in numerous categories of organismal phenotype; establish more reliable associations between causal historical processes and biological outcomes; develop a universally standardized scheme for biological classifications; and generally promote novel avenues of thought in many arenas of comparative evolutionary biology.This authoritative reference work brings together, for the first time, experts on all major groups of organisms to assemble a timetree of life. The result is a comprehensive resource on evolutionary history which will be an indispensable reference for scientists, educators, and students in the life sciences, earth sciences, and molecular biology. For each major group of organism, a representative is illustrated and a timetree of families and higher taxonomic groups is shown. Basic aspects ofthe evolutionary history of the group, the fossil record, and competing hypotheses of relationships are discussed. Details of the divergence times are presented for each node in the timetree, and primary literature references are included. The book is complemented by an online database(www.timetree.net) which allows researchers to both deposit and retrieve data.

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology
Author: Douglas Futuyma,Janis Antonovics
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 1992-10-08
ISBN: 9780195360417
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology Book Excerpt:

This new volume in the OSEB series presents reviews of key theoretical ideas and frameworks, and outlines progress in evolutionary studies.

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 2132
Release: 2016-04-14
ISBN: 0128004266
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology Book Excerpt:

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

Evolutionary Biology 8 e

Evolutionary Biology 8 e
Author: Singh
Publsiher: Rastogi Publications
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 9788171336395
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evolutionary Biology 8 e Book Excerpt:

How to Clone a Mammoth

How to Clone a Mammoth
Author: Beth Shapiro
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2020-09-08
ISBN: 0691209006
Category: Nature
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

How to Clone a Mammoth Book Excerpt:

An insider's view on bringing extinct species back to life Could extinct species, like mammoths and passenger pigeons, be brought back to life? In How to Clone a Mammoth, Beth Shapiro, an evolutionary biologist and pioneer in ancient DNA research, addresses this intriguing question by walking readers through the astonishing and controversial process of de-extinction. From deciding which species should be restored to anticipating how revived populations might be overseen in the wild, Shapiro vividly explores the extraordinary cutting-edge science that is being used to resurrect the past. Considering de-extinction's practical benefits and ethical challenges, Shapiro argues that the overarching goal should be the revitalization and stabilization of contemporary ecosystems. Looking at the very real and compelling science behind an idea once seen as science fiction, How to Clone a Mammoth demonstrates how de-extinction will redefine conservation's future.

Grand Challenges in the Field of Earth Science

Grand Challenges in the Field of Earth Science
Author: Collaborative
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-11-23
ISBN: 2889197115
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Grand Challenges in the Field of Earth Science Book Excerpt:

Frontiers in Earth Science is an open-access journal that aims to bring together and publish on a single platform the best research dedicated to our planet. This platform hosts all the rapidly growing and continuously expanding domains in Earth Science, involving the lithosphere (including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and geography), the hydrosphere (including hydrology and cryospheric, marine and ocean sciences, complementing the existing Frontiers journal on Marine Science) and the atmosphere (including meteorology and climatology). As such, Frontiers in Earth Science focuses on the countless processes operating within and among the major spheres constituting our planet. In turn, the understanding of these processes provides the theoretical background to better use the available resources and to face the major environmental challenges (including earthquakes, tsunamis, eruptions, floods, landslides, climate changes, sea level rise, extreme meteorological events): this is where interdependent processes meet, requiring a holistic view to better live on and with our planet. Within this volume are included the Grand Challenge papers for the Earth Science field, authored by the Field Chief Editor, and several of the 16 online specialty sections, authored by the respective Chief Editors. These articles identify and describe the crucial challenges for Earth Science at the dawn of the 21st century.

Ancient DNA

Ancient DNA
Author: Elizabeth D Jones
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2022-02-22
ISBN: 030026237X
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ancient DNA Book Excerpt:

The untold story of the rise of the new scientific field of ancient DNA research, and how Jurassic Park and popular media influenced its development Ancient DNA research—the recovery of genetic material from long-dead organisms—is a discipline that developed from science fiction into a reality between the 1980s and today. Drawing on scientific, historical, and archival material, as well as original interviews with more than fifty researchers worldwide, Elizabeth Jones explores the field’s formation and explains its relationship with the media by examining its close connection to de-extinction, the science and technology of resurrecting extinct species. She reveals how the search for DNA from fossils flourished under the influence of intense press and public interest, particularly as this new line of research coincided with the book and movie Jurassic Park. Ancient DNA is the first account to trace the historical and sociological interplay between science and celebrity in the rise of this new research field. In the process, Jones argues that ancient DNA research is more than a public-facing science: it is a celebrity science.

Extinction and Phylogeny

Extinction and Phylogeny
Author: Michael J. Novacek
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 253
Release: 1992
ISBN: 9780231074384
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extinction and Phylogeny Book Excerpt:

More than 99 percent of all life that has ever existed on this planet is extinct. Moreover, human acceleration of the extinction of species has created a crisis in biodiversity. How can the history of past life be retrieved? How does this history bear on our understanding of the organization and evolution of present-day species? These questions are addressed in Extinction and Phylogeny. This book offers new and original research by leading authorities on evolutionary and systematic biology, who rank among the best of the dynamic investigators of botany, zoology, and paleontology. This exciting book includes chapters about the recovery of information from living biota, taking into account the limitations of sampling and the steady rate of contemporary extinction of taxa. Complementary discussions elucidate problems involving the analysis of data sets of variable completeness--for example, partially preserved fossils or patchy samples of extant taxa. Extinction and Phylogeny balances empirical issues with the theoretical and applies cladistic methodology. This detailed text will prove to be a leading-edge book for professional and student biologists alike and for those in related disciplines. The relationship between extinction and phylogenetic theory must be understood if we are to explain existing biological diversity and effectively assess the declining biodiversity of our planet in the decades to come.

Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals

Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals
Author: Beatrice Demarchi
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2020-06-12
ISBN: 1119089549
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals Book Excerpt:

AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS IN FOSSIL BIOMINERALS An essential cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins that form biominerals and that are preserved in the fossil record?? Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals is an authoritative guide to the patterns of survival and degradation of ancient biomolecules in the fossil record. The author brings together new research in biomineralization and ancient proteins to describe mechanisms of protein diagenesis. The book draws on the author's experiences as well as current information from three research fields: geochemistry, archaeology and Quaternary sciences. The author examines the history of the study of ancient proteins, from the dating of Quaternary biominerals to the present advances in shotgun proteomics, and discusses their applications across archaeology, geology and evolutionary biology. This important guide:?? Explores the main components of biominerals Describes the breakdown of proteins in fossils Reviews the applications of ancient protein studies Written for students and researchers of biomolecular archaeology and palaeontology, Amino Acids and Proteins in Fossil Biominerals provides a cross-disciplinary guide to the proteins responsible for the formation of biominerals and to the survival of biomolecules in the archaeological and palaeontological record. This book forms one volume of the popular New Analytical Methods in Earth and Environmental Science Series.

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology
Author: Jeff Thomason
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 277
Release: 1997-10-28
ISBN: 9780521629218
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology Book Excerpt:

Looks at how fossil vertebrates moved, fed and reproduced.

New Thinking about Evolution

New Thinking about Evolution
Author: umes santilal
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 578
Release: 2020-07-11
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Thinking about Evolution Book Excerpt:

UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTIONIn biology the idea of evolution postulates that the various styles of plant life, animals, and different dwelling matters on Earth have their foundation in other preexisting kinds and that the distinguishable variations are because of modifications in successive generations. The idea of evolution is one of the essential keystones of cutting-edge organic idea.The diversity of the living global is staggering. More than 2 million present species of organisms have been named and defined; many more stay to be determined--from 10 million to 30 million, according to some estimates. What is impressive is not just the numbers but additionally the great heterogeneity in length, form, and manner of lifestyles--from lowly micro organism, measuring much less than one thousandth of a millimetre in diameter, to stately sequoias, rising a hundred metres (300 feet) above the floor and weighing several thousand tons; from bacteria living in warm springsat temperatures close to the boiling point of water to fungi and algae thriving on the ice masses of Antarctica and in saline pools at −23 °C (−nine °F); thriving on the ice loads of Antarctica and in saline swimming pools at −23 °C (−9 °F); and from giant tube worms observed residing near hydrothermal vents on the dark ocean ground to spiders and larkspur flora existing at the slopes of Mount Everest extra than 6,000 metres (19,seven hundred feet) above sea level.The truly infinite variations on lifestyles are the fruit of the evolutionary manner. All residing creatures are related by using descent from common ancestors. Humans and other mammals descend from shrewlike creatures that lived extra than one hundred fifty million years in the past; mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes percentage as ancestors aquatic worms that lived 600 million years in the past; and all plants and animals derive from micro organism-like microorganisms that originated more than3 billion years in the past. Biological evolution is a methodof descent with modification. Lineages of organisms trade through generations; diversity arises because the lineages that descend from not unusual ancestors diverge via time.The geologic time scale from 650 million years ago to the prevailing, showing essential evolutionary events. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.The 19th-century English naturalist Charles Darwin argued that organisms come approximately through evolution, and he furnished a scientific rationalization, basically correct but incomplete, of the way evolution happens and why it is that organisms have capabilities--such as wings, eyes, and kidneys--surely established to serve unique functions. Natural selection turned into the fundamental concept in his clarification. Natural selection takes place due to the fact people having extra-useful developments, which include more-acute vision or quicker legs, continue to exist higher and produce extra progeny than people with much less-beneficialtendencies. Genetics, a technological know-how born inside the 20th century, exhibits in detail how natural selection works and caused the improvement of the modern theory of evolution. Beginning inside the Sixties, a associated scientific discipline, molecular biology, enormously superior expertise of organic evolution and made it viable to analyze detailed troubles that had appeared absolutely out of attain only a short time formerly--for example, how comparable the genes of people and chimpanzees might be (they differ in approximately 1-2 percentage of the units that make up the genes).THE EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTIONDarwin and other 19th-century biologists observed compelling proof for biological evolution inside the comparative look at of living organisms, of their geographic distribution, and within the fossil remains of extinct organisms.

Encyclopedia of Genetics

Encyclopedia of Genetics
Author: Eric C.R. Reeve
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 972
Release: 2014-01-14
ISBN: 1134263570
Category: Reference
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Genetics Book Excerpt:

First Published in 2001. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Exploring Evolutionary Biology

Exploring Evolutionary Biology
Author: Montgomery Slatkin
Publsiher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Total Pages: 305
Release: 1995
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Exploring Evolutionary Biology Book Excerpt:

Featuring a collection of articles from American Scientist between 1983 and 1995, this book is intended to serve as supplementary reading in evolutionary biology and to introduce the reader to modern research topics in the field. The articles are by leading research scientists and illustrate the diversity of problems that evolutionary biologists encounter along the way to understanding the history of living things and the processes that govern evolutionary change.

God and Fallacy in the Theory of Evolution

God and Fallacy in the Theory of Evolution
Author: Lee James Best
Publsiher: Trafford Publishing
Total Pages: 111
Release: 2003
ISBN: 1412002303
Category: Religion
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

God and Fallacy in the Theory of Evolution Book Excerpt:

The author describes God and Fallacy in the Theory of Evolution as a well researched examination of Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution. There are numerous examples of living species that the authors uses in support of his assertion to that there is a living Supreme Being, infinite Reasoning Mind, or God, who is the Creator of life and the guiding Director of its evolution. Whereas many believers in a Creator of Life contend that evolving change in living species have never happened, the author holds that changes called evolution in species are scientifically verifiable, but that the cause of evolution is a reasoning living Supreme Being called God. The origin and evolutionary changes of life forms are not due to blind chance or accidental causes that are without life and mental ability. Extraordinary examples from nature, historical facts, and ordinary human reasoning have led the author to this conclusion. This reasoning prevails in leading one to conclude that there is a Supreme Mind who is active throughout history in the shaping of life forms in an evolutionary process - despite the destructive and imperfect qualities found in some living beings. These destructive and imperfect qualities, however, are definitely a weaker minority; otherwise all living species would have been eradicated and made extinct a long time ago. An examination of the biological changes in various life forms such as birds, octopuses, horses, etc. and inquiry into the nature of a wide range of phenomena such as DNA molecules, the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, homing and self-protective instincts, and electromagnetism helps to cogently convey the author's interpretation of what biological evolution is and why it has occurred. "James Best has written an intriguing and insightful analysis of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. While agreeing with much of Darwin's theory, he sets forth his views and reasoning and arrives at some different conclusions about the origin of living organisms. His research on the subject is thorough, and his conclusions are thought provoking and well reasoned. His logic is clear and convincing." - Robert B. Morgan, Attorney at Law, former Director of the North Carolina S.B.I., North Carolina Attorney General, and United States Senator "Overall, the book presents many fascinating phenomena, many of which cause one with belief in a Creator to marvel in awe at the design." - Dr. Timothy D. Metz, Chairman of the Department of Biological Sciences, Campbell University "In reviewing your book, I found no scientific errors. You have made an excellent case for the existence of God!" - Dr. Ronald W. Maddox, Dean and Professor, School of Pharmacy, Campbell University