The Genetics of African Populations in Health and Disease

The Genetics of African Populations in Health and Disease
Author: Muntaser E. Ibrahim,Charles N. Rotimi
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2019-12-19
ISBN: 1107072026
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Genetics of African Populations in Health and Disease Book Excerpt:

A pioneering work that focuses on the unique diversity of African genetics, offering insights into human biology and genetic approaches.

The Science of Health Disparities Research

The Science of Health Disparities Research
Author: Irene Dankwa-Mullan,Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable,Kevin L. Gardner,Xinzhi Zhang,Adelaida M. Rosario
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2021-03-01
ISBN: 1119374847
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Science of Health Disparities Research Book Excerpt:

Integrates the various disciplines of the science of health disparities in one comprehensive volume The Science of Health Disparities Research is an indispensable source of up-to-date information on clinical and translational health disparities science. Building upon the advances in health disparities research over the past decade, this authoritative volume informs policies and practices addressing the diseases, disorders, and gaps in health outcomes that are more prevalent in minority populations and socially disadvantaged communities. Contributions by recognized scholars and leaders in the field—featuring contemporary research, conceptual models, and a broad range of scientific perspectives—provide an interdisciplinary approach to reducing inequalities in population health, encouraging community engagement in the research process, and promoting social justice. In-depth chapters help readers better understand the specifics of minority health and health disparities while demonstrating the importance of advancing theory, refining measurement, improving investigative methods, and diversifying scientific research. In 26 chapters, the book examines topics including the etiology of health disparities research, the determinants of population health, research ethics, and research in African American, Asians, Latino, American Indian, and other vulnerable populations. Providing a unified framework on the principles and applications of the science of health disparities research, this important volume: Defines the field of health disparities science and suggests new directions in scholarship and research Explains basic definitions, principles, and concepts for identifying, understanding and addressing health disparities Provides guidance on both conducting health disparities research and translating the results Examines how social, historical and contemporary injustices may influence the health of racial and ethnic minorities Illustrates the increasing national and global importance of addressing health disparities Discusses population health training, capacity-building, and the transdisciplinary tools needed to advance health equity A significant contribution to the field, The Science of Health Disparities Research is an essential resource for students and basic and clinical researchers in genetics, population genetics, and public health, health care policymakers, and epidemiologists, medical students, and clinicians, particularly those working with minority, vulnerable, or underserved populations.

Health in Transition

Health in Transition
Author: Andrew J Macnab,Abdallah Daar,Christoff Pauw
Publsiher: African Sun Media
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2021-01-26
ISBN: 192835775X
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Health in Transition Book Excerpt:

At STIAS, the ‘Health in Transition’ theme includes a programme to address the epidemic rise in the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, coronary heart disease and stroke in Africa. The aim is to advance awareness, research capacity and knowledge translation of science related to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) as a means of preventing NCDs in future generations. Application of DOHaD science is a promising avenue for prevention, as this field is identifying how health and nutrition from conception through the first 1 000 days of life can dramatically impact a developing individual’s future life course, and specifically predicate whether or not they are programmed in infancy to develop NCDs in later life. Prevention of NCDs is an essential strategy as, if unchecked, the burden of caring for a growing and ageing population with these diseases threatens to consume entire health budgets, as well as negatively impact the quality of life of millions. Africa in particular needs specific, focussed endeavors to realize the maximal preventive potential of DOHaD science, and a means of generating governmental and public awareness about the links between health in infancy and disease in adult life. This volume summarizes the expertise and experience of a leading group of international scientists led by Abdallah Daar brought together at STIAS as part of the ‘Health in Transition’ programme.

Genomics and Health in the Developing World

Genomics and Health in the Developing World
Author: Dhavendra Kumar
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 1536
Release: 2012-05-11
ISBN: 019970547X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genomics and Health in the Developing World Book Excerpt:

Genomics and Health in the Developing World provides detailed and comprehensive coverage of population structures, human genomics, and genome variation--with particular emphasis on medical and health issues--in the emerging economies and countries of the developing world. With sections dedicated to fundamtals of genetics and genomics, epidemiology of human disease, biomarkers, comparative genomics, developments in translational genomic medicine, current and future health strategies related to genetic disease, and pertinent legislative and social factors, this volume highlights the importance of utilizing genetics/genomics knowledge to promote and achieve optimal health in the developing world. Grouped by geographic region, the chapters in this volume address: - Inherited disorders in the developing world, including a thorough look at genetic disorders in minority groups of every continent - The progress of diagnostic laboratory genetic testing, prenatal screening, and genetic counseling worldwide - Rising ethical and legal concerns of medical genetics in the developing world - Social, cultural, and religious issues related to genetic diseases across continents Both timely and vastly informative, this book is a unique and comprehensive resource for genetists, clinicians, and public health professionals interested in the social, ethical, economic, and legal matters associated with medical genetics in the developing world.

Human Biology of Afro Caribbean Populations

Human Biology of Afro Caribbean Populations
Author: Lorena Madrigal
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 251
Release: 2006
ISBN: 9781107159341
Category: Blacks
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Biology of Afro Caribbean Populations Book Excerpt:

A comprehensive review of the health, demography and population genetics of Carribbean populations of African descent. It provides an evolutionary framework for understanding the epidemiology of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, and the effects of infectious disease on the genetic make-up of these populations.

Advancing Africa s Sustainable Development

Advancing Africa s Sustainable Development
Author: Alain L. Fymat
Publsiher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Total Pages: 502
Release: 2018-11-14
ISBN: 1527521656
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advancing Africa s Sustainable Development Book Excerpt:

While many African countries lag behind the rest of the industrialised world in scientific and medical research and development, the situation is progressively improving. This is why the Society for the Advancement of Science in Africa was established, to contribute to economic advancement and sustainability through science research, education and innovation. This book provides a selection of papers from the Advancement of Science in Africa’s fourth annual conference. The conference was held under the overarching theme of ‘science, technology and innovation in Africa’, with several important sub-themes, including, but not limited to, improving health research and disease surveillance education; collaborating in research responding to epidemic diseases with high mortality in Africa; and promoting women’s interest in science careers. The collection illustrates how, although the chapter contributors come from various countries and universities, representing their own academic research, they all share a common interest in advancing science, technology and innovation in Africa.

The Science of Health Disparities Research

The Science of Health Disparities Research
Author: Irene Dankwa-Mullan,Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable,Kevin L. Gardner,Xinzhi Zhang,Adelaida M. Rosario
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2021-02-26
ISBN: 1119374839
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Science of Health Disparities Research Book Excerpt:

Integrates the various disciplines of the science of health disparities in one comprehensive volume The Science of Health Disparities Research is an indispensable source of up-to-date information on clinical and translational health disparities science. Building upon the advances in health disparities research over the past decade, this authoritative volume informs policies and practices addressing the diseases, disorders, and gaps in health outcomes that are more prevalent in minority populations and socially disadvantaged communities. Contributions by recognized scholars and leaders in the field—featuring contemporary research, conceptual models, and a broad range of scientific perspectives—provide an interdisciplinary approach to reducing inequalities in population health, encouraging community engagement in the research process, and promoting social justice. In-depth chapters help readers better understand the specifics of minority health and health disparities while demonstrating the importance of advancing theory, refining measurement, improving investigative methods, and diversifying scientific research. In 26 chapters, the book examines topics including the etiology of health disparities research, the determinants of population health, research ethics, and research in African American, Asians, Latino, American Indian, and other vulnerable populations. Providing a unified framework on the principles and applications of the science of health disparities research, this important volume: Defines the field of health disparities science and suggests new directions in scholarship and research Explains basic definitions, principles, and concepts for identifying, understanding and addressing health disparities Provides guidance on both conducting health disparities research and translating the results Examines how social, historical and contemporary injustices may influence the health of racial and ethnic minorities Illustrates the increasing national and global importance of addressing health disparities Discusses population health training, capacity-building, and the transdisciplinary tools needed to advance health equity A significant contribution to the field, The Science of Health Disparities Research is an essential resource for students and basic and clinical researchers in genetics, population genetics, and public health, health care policymakers, and epidemiologists, medical students, and clinicians, particularly those working with minority, vulnerable, or underserved populations.

Genetics of Complex Traits Diseases from Under Represented Populations

Genetics of Complex Traits   Diseases from Under Represented Populations
Author: Segun Fatumo,Tinashe Chikowore,Karoline Kuchenbaecker
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-02-22
ISBN: 2889744647
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics of Complex Traits Diseases from Under Represented Populations Book Excerpt:

Genetic Disorders Among Arab Populations

Genetic Disorders Among Arab Populations
Author: Ahmad S. Teebi,Talaat I. Farag
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 499
Release: 1997
ISBN: 9780195093056
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Disorders Among Arab Populations Book Excerpt:

Few regions of the world have a more varied physiography or a richer ethnic, religious, social, and cultural mix than the Arab world. As a consequence, Arabs are genetically diverse despite their linguistic and religious cohesion. High but variable rates of inbreeding prevail in all Arab countries with numerous examples of isolates among them. These include some Bedouin groups, Nubians, Druze, Jews, and others. Arab populations have high frequencies of autosomal recessive disorders, homozygosity of autosomal dominant and X-linked traits, and a wealth of new syndromes and variants, the majority of which are autosomal recessive. Genetic disorders that cause major health problems include hemoglobinopathies, neurogenetic disorders, inherited metabolic diseases, and inborn error of morphogenesis. Because of their characteristically high prevalence, some of these disorders are considered markers for Arab populations. This book presents the unique profile of genetic disorders and variants in Arabs. In addition, it describes their unusual demographic pattern including fertility rates and other population dimensions, family structure, magnitude and effects of consanguineous marriages and indicators of health and disease. Genetic counseling and the distinctive cultural and religious attitudes towards various genetic issues are also presented. Disorders that have increased tribal occurrences or are limited to large kindreds, as well as small geographic or religious isolates, are highlighted to facilitate their recognition, study, and management

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction
Author: Patricia Hernandez-Rodriguez
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 580
Release: 2012-05-30
ISBN: 9535106120
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymerase Chain Reaction Book Excerpt:

This book is intended to present current concepts in molecular biology with the emphasis on the application to animal, plant and human pathology, in various aspects such as etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prevention of diseases as well as the use of these methodologies in understanding the pathophysiology of various diseases that affect living beings.

Ancestry Estimation and Application to the Genetic of Complex Diseases in Human

Ancestry Estimation and Application to the Genetic of Complex Diseases in Human
Author: Rami Mohamed Nassir
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011
ISBN: 9781124907901
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ancestry Estimation and Application to the Genetic of Complex Diseases in Human Book Excerpt:

Understanding the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes is one of the major aims in biology and medicine. An important foundation to understand this relationship is the clear understanding of the pattern of genetic diversity in different human populations and how it correlates with complex genetic diseases. This would facilitate determining why there are differences in susceptibility to common disease among individuals and populations from different continental ancestry groups. In chapter one, I review the critical background for studying the genetics of complex disease. This includes recent studies for ascertaining the genetic structure of human populations using genetic markers, the importance of genetic variations and how it affects the development of specific phenotypes and specific methods to incorporate genetic substructure in association tests. In chapter two, I introduce our ancestry informative markers (AIMs) set for assessing the continental ancestry and admixture proportions in common populations in America. This set of 128 SNPs can correct for populations stratification in admixed population sample sets. In chapter three, I present additional studies validating these AIMs in multiple population groups from Oceana, South Asia, East Asia, Sub-Saharan African, North and South America and Europe. In addition, a subset of this AIM's, which consists of 93 AIM's are effective in identifying the continental subject groups from the Human Genome Diversity Panels. In chapter Four, I present the application of these AIMs to evaluate the association of genetic admixture in African American and Hispanic populations in Women Health Initiative study (WHI) with different measurements of obesity including Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR). In chapter five, I further present results of the association of genetic admixture in the same populations and different measurements of hypertension. In chapter six, I discuss some perspective and the direction for the future of this research.

Genomics and Health in the Developing World

Genomics and Health in the Developing World
Author: Dhavendra Kumar
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 1501
Release: 2012-06-14
ISBN: 0195374754
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genomics and Health in the Developing World Book Excerpt:

This book is designed to be the first major text to discuss advances in medical genetics in the developing world.

Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin

Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin
Author: James E. Bowman
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 472
Release: 1990
ISBN: 9780801858840
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin Book Excerpt:

"The most comprehensive treatment of genetic variation and disorders in 'peoples of African origin' yet to appear. It is an encyclopedic work, broad in the scope of its mission and commendable in its achievement." -- American Journal of Human Genetics "This volume is an excellent introduction to an interesting and important topic and is recommended for students, practitioners, and teachers in human genetics, biological anthropology, medicine, the health professions, and biology in general." -- Quarterly Review of Biology The misuse of evidence of genetic differences among human populations to "prove" theories of white supremacy has seriously compromised studies of genetic variation among racial groups. But there is no question, argue James Bowman and Robert Murray, that genetic disorders do vary from one population to another. Emphasizing the positive value of genetic differences, Bowman and Murray offer an overview of the diverse African populations and trace their migrations both within Africa and throughout the world. Topics include skeletal variation, pigmentation, polymorphisms, hemoglobinpathies and thalassemias, malaria, lactose intolerance, multiple births, congenital malformations, hypertension, and diabetes. The authors also explore the ethical and legal implications of genetic counseling for minority populations. Based on a careful survey and collation of the literature as well as on the authors' original research, Genetic Variation and Disorders in Peoples of African Origin provides more information on this subject than has been previously available in a single, concise volume.

Emery and Rimoin s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics

Emery and Rimoin   s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics
Author: Reed E. Pyeritz,Bruce R. Korf,Wayne W. Grody
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 412
Release: 2018-11-20
ISBN: 0128126841
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emery and Rimoin s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics Book Excerpt:

For decades, Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics has served as the ultimate resource for clinicians integrating genetics into medical practice. With detailed coverage in contributions from over 250 of the world’s most trusted authorities in medical genetics and a series of 11 volumes available for individual sale, the Seventh Edition of this classic reference includes the latest information on seminal topics such as prenatal diagnosis, genome and exome sequencing, public health genetics, genetic counseling, and management and treatment strategies to complete its coverage of this growing field for medical students, residents, physicians, and researchers involved in the care of patients with genetic conditions. This comprehensive yet practical resource emphasizes theory and research fundamentals related to applications of medical genetics across the full spectrum of inherited disorders and applications to medicine more broadly. Clinical Principles and Applications thoroughly addresses general methods and approaches to genetic counseling, genetic diagnostics, treatment pathways, and drug discovery. Additionally, new and updated chapters explore the clinical implementation of genomic technologies, analytics, and therapeutics, with special attention paid to developing technologies, common challenges, patient care, and ethical and legal aspects. With regular advances in genomic technologies propelling precision medicine into the clinic, the seventh edition of Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics and Genomics bridges the gap between high-level molecular genetics and practical application and serves as an invaluable clinical tool for the health professionals and researchers. Fully revised and up-to-date, this new edition introduces genetic researchers, students, and health professionals to general principles of genetic counseling, genetic and genomic diagnostics, treatment pathways, drug discovery, and the application of genomic technologies, analytics, and therapeutics in clinical practice Examines key topics and developing areas within clinical genomics, including genetic evaluation of patients, clinical trials and drug discovery, genetic health records, cytogenetic analysis, diagnostic molecular genetics, small molecule genetic therapeutics, gene product replacement, clinical teratology, transplantation genetics, and ethical and legal aspects of genomic medicine Includes color images supporting identification, concept illustration, and method processing Features contributions by leading international researchers and practitioners of medical genetics

Educating Health Professionals in Genomic Medicine Evidence Based Strategies and Approaches

Educating Health Professionals in Genomic Medicine  Evidence Based Strategies and Approaches
Author: Sylvia Ann Metcalfe,Clara Gaff,Michael Dougherty
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-10-09
ISBN: 2889660591
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Educating Health Professionals in Genomic Medicine Evidence Based Strategies and Approaches Book Excerpt:

Human Genetic Diversity

Human Genetic Diversity
Author: Julian C. Knight
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 504
Release: 2009-08-06
ISBN: 0191572586
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Genetic Diversity Book Excerpt:

The secrets of our genetic heritage are finally being unlocked. The massive scientific effort to sequence the human genome is in fact just the beginning of a long journey as the extraordinary genetic diversity that exists between individuals becomes clear. Work in this field promises much: to understand our evolutionary origins, to define us as individuals, to predict our risk of disease and to more effectively understand, treat and prevent illness. Contemporary genetic research is allowing the basis of both rare inherited disorders and common multifactorial diseases like asthma and diabetes to be more clearly defined. Huge investments are being made and great advances have been achieved, but the challenges remain daunting. This book provides an authoritative overview of this topical and very rapidly advancing field of biomedical research. Human Genetic Diversity describes the major classes of genetic variation and their functional consequences. A combination of cutting-edge research and landmark historical studies illustrate developments in the field, the rationale for current studies and likely future directions. Major structural variants at a chromosomal level are described, as well as copy number variation and sequence level genetic diversity. Evidence of selective pressures in human populations and insights into human evolution are illustrated. The book describes the development of linkage analysis and more recently genome-wide association studies to define the genetic basis of disease, current approaches to defining functional causative variants and the emerging fields of pharmacogenomics and individualised medicine.

Sickle Cell and the Social Sciences

Sickle Cell and the Social Sciences
Author: Simon M. Dyson
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2019-03-27
ISBN: 1351580841
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sickle Cell and the Social Sciences Book Excerpt:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a severe chronic illness and one of the world’s most common genetic conditions, with 400,000 children born annually with the disorder, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, India, Brazil, the Middle East and in diasporic African populations in North America and Europe. Biomedical treatments for SCD are increasingly available to the world’s affluent populations, while such medical care is available only in attenuated forms in Africa, India and to socio-economically disadvantaged groups in North America and Europe. Often a condition rendered invisible in policy terms because of its problematic association with politically marginalized groups, the social study of sickle cell has been neglected. This illuminating volume explores the challenges and possibilities for developing a social view of sickle cell, and for improving the quality of lives of those living with SCD. Tackling the controversial role of screening and genetics in SCD, the book offers a brief thematic history of approaches to the condition, queries the role of ethnicity and includes a discussion of how the social model of disability can be applied, as well as featuring chapters focusing on athletics, prisons and schools. Bringing together a wide range of original research conducted in the USA, the UK, Ghana and Nigeria, Sickle Cell and the Social Sciences is anchored in the discipline of sociology, but draws upon a diverse range of fields, including public health, anthropology, social policy and disability studies.

Pharmacogenomics in Admixed Populations

Pharmacogenomics in Admixed Populations
Author: Dr. G. Suarez-Kurtz
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2007-08-03
ISBN: 1498713793
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmacogenomics in Admixed Populations Book Excerpt:

Ethnic specificity has become an integral part of research in the overlapping sciences of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics in Admixed Populations was conceived to compile pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx) data from peoples of four continents: Africa, America, Asia and Oceania, where admixture and population stratification occurs

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land
Author: Bernard Kwabi-Addo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2017-06-27
ISBN: 331955865X
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land Book Excerpt:

This stimulating volume uses multiple lenses to analyze the complex causes of health disparities affecting minorities, in particular African Americans, and explains how this knowledge can be used to reduce their destructive effects. Pinpointing genetic, non-genetic, and epigenetic factors underlying health conditions common to the population—including heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer—the author traces intricate links among these factors in the current environmental and social context. The section on non-genetic factors in health disparities, such as social determinants and health behaviors, adds depth to the ongoing discourse on public health and health policy objectives. And the chapters on gene/environment interactions outline the vast potential for developing new multidisciplinary frontiers in shrinking health inequities and personalizing care. Included in the coverage: The African diaspora and disease-specific disparities The genetic basis to health disparities The role of epigenetics Economic factors and health Psychological issues and how they affect disparities Gene-environment interactions in health disparities Race, a biological or social concept Compelling and accessible, Health Outcomes in a Foreign Land will challenge and inspire medical students, epidemiologists, public health professionals, biomedical research scientists, and social scientists to go farther in their work. A wider audience would include policymakers, government officials, nurses, physicians, lawyers, economists, community outreach investigators, and interested general readers.

Guidelines for the in Situ Translocation of the African Elephant for Conservation Purposes

Guidelines for the in Situ Translocation of the African Elephant for Conservation Purposes
Author: Holly T. Dublin,Leo S. Niskanen
Publsiher: IUCN
Total Pages: 54
Release: 2003
ISBN: 2831707595
Category: African elephant
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Guidelines for the in Situ Translocation of the African Elephant for Conservation Purposes Book Excerpt: