The Governance Of Disease Outbreaks

Author by : Leonie Vierck
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nomos Verlag
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Description : Der Sammelband richtet sich an ein Fachpublikum von Völkerrechtlern, Praktikern in internationalen Institutionen und anderen Experten, die sich mit den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen der internationalen Governance ansteckender Krankheiten vertraut machen möchten. Fallbeispiel ist die Ebola-Krise in Westafrika. Der Band geht aus einem breiter angelegten Heidelberger Kooperationsprojekt zur "International Health Governance" der Forschungsstätte der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft e.V. - Institut für interdisziplinäre Forschung (FEST) und des Max-Planck-Instituts für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (MPIL) hervor. Die Autoren beleuchten Kontext und materiellen Rechtsrahmen des Themas, auch unter Hervorhebung menschenrechtlicher Bezüge, institutionelles Recht ("Gesundheit als Sicherheitsrisiko?") sowie die Grenzen eines genuin rechtlichen Ansatzes. Die Autoren sind den Disziplinen Völkerrecht, Public Health, Politikwissenschaften und Anthropologie zuzuordnen. Mit Beiträgen von Elif Askin, Susan L. Erikson, André den Exter, Robert Frau, Wolfgang Hein, Bonnie Kaiser, Hunter Keys, Michael Marx, Edefe Ojomo, Ilja Richard Pavone, Mateja Steinbrück Platise, Christian R. Thauer, Leonie Vierck, Pedro A. Villarreal, A. Katarina Weilert


The Politics Of Global Health Governance

Author by : M. Zacher
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 28
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Description : Diseases do not recognize national borders, and as we are gradually learning, failure to govern health effectively at a global level profoundly affects us all. This book is about how global health governance has evolved to become stronger, more complex, and more important than ever before in history.


Global Health Risk Framework

Author by : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Languange : en
Publisher by : National Academies Press
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Total Read : 58
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Description : Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak many public- and private-sector leaders have seen a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The consequences and lethality of Ebola have increased interest in coordinated global response to infectious threats, many of which could disrupt global health and commerce far more than the recent outbreak. In order to explore the potential for improving international management and response to outbreaks the National Academy of Medicine agreed to manage an international, independent, evidence-based, authoritative, multistakeholder expert commission. As part of this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in summer of 2015 to inform the commission report. The presentations and discussions from the Governance for Global Health Workshop are summarized in this report.


The Politics Of Surveillance And Response To Disease Outbreaks

Author by : Sara E. Davies
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 72
Total Download : 717
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : The capacity to conduct international disease outbreak surveillance and share information about outbreaks quickly has empowered both State and Non-State Actors to take an active role in stopping the spread of disease by generating new technical means to identify potential pandemics through the creation of shared reporting platforms. Despite all the rhetoric about the importance of infectious disease surveillance, the concept itself has received relatively little critical attention from academics, practitioners, and policymakers. This book asks leading contributors in the field to engage with five key issues attached to international disease outbreak surveillance - transparency, local engagement, practical needs, integration, and appeal - to illuminate the political effect of these technologies on those who use surveillance, those who respond to surveillance, and those being monitored.


Governance Of Communicable Disease Control Services

Author by : Monica Das Gupta
Languange : en
Publisher by : World Bank Publications
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Total Read : 14
Total Download : 402
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Description : Das Gupta, Khaleghian, and Sarwal study the impact of governance and administrative factors on communicable disease prevention in the Indian state of Karnataka using survey data from administrators, frontline workers, and elected local representatives. They identify a number of key constraints to the effective management of disease control in India, in misaligned incentives, and the institutional arrangements for service delivery. The authors discuss these under five headings: administrative issues; human resource management; horizontal coordination; decentralization, community involvement, and public accountability; and implementation of public health laws and regulations. They find that India's public health system is configured to be highly effective at top-down reactive work, such as bringing disease outbreaks under control, but not for the more routine collaborations required for proactive disease prevention. The authors conclude with policy recommendations that take into account the complexity of India's system of public administration and the need for simple reforms that can be easily implemented. This paper--a product of Public Services, Development Research Group--was prepared as background for the World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People.


Socio Cultural Dimensions Of Emerging Infectious Diseases In Africa

Author by : Godfrey B. Tangwa
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 68
Total Download : 727
File Size : 43,9 Mb
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Description : This volume examines the most important socio-cultural, political, economic, and policy issues related to emerging infectious diseases in Africa. The volume covers the work of the Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium (GET); it looks at the challenges of science education and communication in Africa, the global health and governance of pandemics and epidemics, and more. It looks beyond such threats as Ebola, SARS, and Zika to consider the ways communities have sought to contain these and other deadly pathogens. The chapters provide a better understanding of a global health problem from an African perspective, which help clarify to readers why some responses have worked while others have not. Overall, the volume captures the state of the art, science, preparedness, and evolution of a topic important to the health of Africa and the world. It has a broad appeal across disciplines, from medical science and biomedical research, through research ethics, regulation and governance, science and health communication, social sciences, and is also of interest to general readers.


Global Health Governance In International Society

Author by : Jeremy Youde
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 96
Total Download : 636
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Description : In the 1980s, health was a marginal issue on the international political agenda, and it barely figured into donor states' foreign aid allocation. Within a generation, health had developed a robust set of governance structures that drive significant global political action, incorporate a wide range of actors, and receive increasing levels of funding. What explains this dramatic change over such a short period of time? Drawing on the English School of international relations theory, this book argues that global health has emerged as a secondary institution within international society. Rather than being a side issue, global health now occupies an important role. Addressing global health issues-financially, organizationally, and politically-is part of how actors demonstrate their willingness and ability to help realize their moral responsibility and obligation to others. In this way, it demonstrates how global health governance has emerged, grown, and persisted-even in the face of global economic challenges and inadequate responses to particular health crises. The book also shows how English School conceptions of international society would benefit from expanding their analytical gaze to address international economic issues and incorporate non-state actors. The book begins by building a case for using the English School to understand the role of global health governance before looking at global health governance's place in international society through case studies about the growth of development assistance for health, the international response to the Ebola outbreak, and China's role within the global health governance framework. .


The International Politics Of Ebola

Author by : Anne Roemer-Mahler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 60
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Description : The outbreak of Ebola virus disease that gripped Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone through much of 2014 and 2015 was undoubtedly a health emergency, yet it was also a global political event. This book examines the international politics of the Ebola outbreak in all of its dimensions, critically assessing the global response, examining what the outbreak can tell us about contemporary global health governance, and examining the inequalities and injustices that were laid bare. In doing so, the book shows how some of the concepts, debates and findings from the growing field of global health research in International Relations can help both in furthering understanding of the Ebola crisis and also in improving policy responses to future infectious disease outbreaks. This book was originally published as a special edition of Third World Quarterly.


Epidemics

Author by : Sarah Dry
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 65
Total Download : 520
File Size : 54,6 Mb
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Description : Recent disease events such as SARS, H1N1 and avian influenza, and haemorrhagic fevers have focussed policy and public concern as never before on epidemics and so-called 'emerging infectious diseases'. Understanding and responding to these often unpredictable events have become major challenges for local, national and international bodies. All too often, responses can become restricted by implicit assumptions about who or what is to blame that may not capture the dynamics and uncertainties at play in the multi-scale interactions of people, animals and microbes. As a result, policies intended to forestall epidemics may fail, and may even further threaten health, livelihoods and human rights. The book takes a unique approach by focusing on how different policy-makers, scientists, and local populations construct alternative narratives-accounts of the causes and appropriate responses to outbreaks- about epidemics at the global, national and local level. The contrast between emergency-oriented, top-down responses to what are perceived as potentially global outbreaks and longer-term approaches to diseases, such as AIDS, which may now be considered endemic, is highlighted. Case studies-on avian influenza, SARS, obesity, H1N1 influenza, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and haemorrhagic fevers-cover a broad historical, geographical and biological range. As this book explores, it is often the most vulnerable members of a population-the poor, the social excluded and the already ill-who are likely to suffer most from epidemic diseases. At the same time, they may be less likely to benefit from responses that may be designed from a global perspective that neglects social, ecological and political conditions on the ground. This book aims to bring the focus back to these marginal populations to reveal the often unintended consequences of current policy responses to epidemics. Important implications emerge - for how epidemics are thought about and represented; for how surveillance and response is designed; and for whose knowledge and perspectives should be included. Published in association with the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)


Containing Contagion

Author by : Sara E. Davies
Languange : en
Publisher by : Johns Hopkins University Press
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Total Read : 64
Total Download : 393
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Description : Providing an immediate, contemporary example of a region networking its response to disease outbreak events, this insightful book will appeal to global health governance scholars, students, and practitioners.


Pandemics And Peace

Author by : William J. Long
Languange : en
Publisher by : US Institute of Peace Press
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Total Read : 49
Total Download : 187
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Description : Pandemics and Peace examines disease surveillance networks of the Mekong Basin, Middle East, and East Africa to answer two interrelated questions: Why is interstate cooperation in an area of national vulnerability occurring among countries with a history of conflict? How do public-private networks deliver transnational public goods (health), and what factors facilitate or impede effective and legitimate transnational governance?


Risk Communication In Animal Disease Outbreaks And Emergencies

Author by : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Languange : en
Publisher by : Food & Agriculture Org.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
Total Download : 131
File Size : 45,9 Mb
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Description : Risk Communication by the State Veterinary Service plays an important role in disease risk mitigation and is an integral part of risk management during animal health emergencies and zoonotic outbreaks. Effective communication recognises its unique functions as complementary to, but unique among, the other non-communication functions required during an emergency or outbreak response, such as, logistics, epidemiology and finances. Communication is uniquely positioned to build knowledge, influence attitudes, raise awareness, build perceptual associations between recommendations and stakeholders’ or audiences’ values, customs, and beliefs. Furthermore, effective communication focusses on the outcome for the audience or stakeholder, rather than on the activities of the State Veterinary Service or its partners. This publication is based on a Risk Communication Strategy that the FAO Animal Health Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) in Myanmar developed for the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MoALI), Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD) of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. The Warning Project, a not-for-profit company specialising in risk communication, led this strategy development in Myanmar. The Myanmar Risk Communication document is edited in this version to make it applicable to State Veterinary Services in other countries.


Pandemics And Emerging Infectious Diseases

Author by : Robert Dingwall
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 404
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Description : Infectious disease pandemics are a rising threat in our globalizing world. This agenda-setting collection provides international analysis of the pressing sociological concerns they confront us with, from cross-border coordination of public health governance to geopolitical issues of development and social equity. Focuses on vital sociological issues raised by resurgent disease pandemics Detailed analysis of case studies as well as broader, systemic factors Contributions from North America, Europe and Asia provide international perspective Bold, agenda-setting treatment of a high-profile topic


Asia S Role In Governing Global Health

Author by : Kelley Lee
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
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Description : In an era of rapid and extensive globalisation, the world faces a wide range of transboundary problems that require effective collective action. Key among these are threats to human health that do not recognise national borders, and include emerging and re-emerging infections, rising rates of chronic diseases, inadequate access to affordable and safe medicines, spreading anti-microbial resistance and the health effects of climate change. These threats require a transnational response and thus pose significant challenges to global health governance, as well as to long established notions of national sovereignty. This book investigates the neglected question of the impact of a rising Asia on the management of transboundary health problems. The chapters examine the role played by Asia in the governance of a range of global health issues, from development assistance in health, to global health instruments dealing with tobacco control and disease outbreaks, to health research and knowledge products, and the book concludes by examining the broad themes of a rising Asia’s role in the complexity of global health governance. The various analyses are tied together by a common focus on Asian countries’ use of the sovereignty principle, and seek to understand how traditional notions of national sovereignty can both clash with, and enhance, governance objectives in global health. In addition, the contributors examine the interaction between global, regional and domestic institutions, and present current ideas in Asia on the challenge of governing global health. With an inter-disciplinary approach that combines international relations, public policy and public health, this book will be invaluable to both scholars and policy makers working in these fields, as well as Asian politics, social policy and governance more generally.


Global Health Governance

Author by : Obijiofor Aginam
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Toronto Press
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Description : Drawing from a wide range of disciplines, "Global Health Governance" offers a holistic approach to global health governance involving a multiplicity of actors: nation-states, international organizations, civil society organizations, and private actors.


Global Risk Governance In Health

Author by : N. Brender
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 20
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Description : Epidemics know no borders and are often characterized by a high level of uncertainty, causing major challenges in risk governance. The author shows the emergence of global risk governance processes and the key role that the World Health Organization (WHO) plays within them.


On Sars Type Economic Effects During Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Author by : Milan Brahmbhatt
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 25
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File Size : 55,5 Mb
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Description : Infectious disease outbreaks can exact a high human and economic cost through illness and death. But, as with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in East Asia in 2003, or the plague outbreak in Surat, India, in 1994, they can also create severe economic disruptions even when there is, ultimately, relatively little illness or death. Such disruptions are commonly the result of uncoordinated and panicky efforts by individuals to avoid becoming infected, of preventive activity. This paper places these "SARS type" effects in the context of research on economic epidemiology, in which behavioral responses to disease risk have both economic and epidemiological consequences. The paper looks in particular at how people form subjective probability judgments about disease risk. Public opinion surveys during the SARS outbreak provide suggestive evidence that people did indeed at times hold excessively high perceptions of the risk of becoming infected, or, if infected, of dying from the disease. The paper discusses research in behavioral economics and the theory of information cascades that may shed light on the origin of such biases. The authors consider whether public information strategies can help reduce unwarranted panic. A preliminary question is why governments often seem to have strong incentives to conceal information about infectious disease outbreaks. The paper reviews recent game-theoretic analysis that clarifies government incentives. An important finding is that government incentives to conceal decline the more numerous are non-official sources of information about a possible disease outbreak. The findings suggest that honesty may indeed be the best public policy under modern conditions of easy mass global communications.


Inoculating Cities

Author by : Rebecca Katz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Total Read : 22
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Description : Inoculating Cities: Case Studies of Urban Pandemic Preparedness begins with a brief historical description of infectious disease outbreaks in cities as well as an overview of infectious disease outbreaks since 2000 that hold profound implications for cities and urban environments – such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, H1N1 influenza in 2009, Ebola virus in 2014, Zika virus in 2015, and more recently, COVID-19 in 2020. Each of these outbreaks affected different geographies of the world and underscored the importance of urban pandemic preparedness or urban health security as a means of mitigating the threats posed by infectious diseases. This book describes several of the characteristics of cities that make them uniquely vulnerable to infectious disease threats which include, but are not limited to, their population density, population diversity, internal and external population movements, and inequalities in cities. Finally, the book discusses frameworks and capacities that are essential for preparing cities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease outbreaks. With contributions from experts and researchers with first-hand experiences with infectious disease outbreaks, their impact on the management of disease, and pandemic preparedness in progressively urban societies, Inoculating Cities addresses the unique threats infectious diseases pose to urban environments and surveys innovative models that cities are using to combat these threats. Offers a global scope and perspective - inclusive of multiple cities, geographies, and infectious disease outbreaks Provides in-depth case studies of successful models of urban pandemic preparedness which consist of a brief overview of a city, a brief description of an outbreak or disease burden, and an examination of the unique or innovative capacity that a city used to successfully address the health threat Written by an interdisciplinary group of experts and researchers from around the world with first-hand experiences preparing for, detecting, and responding to infectious disease outbreaks


Taiwan Humanitarianism And Global Governance

Author by : Alain Guilloux
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 48
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Description : In this unique book, Alain Guilloux uses four major elements of governance - namely norms, actors, processes, and outcomes - to examine Taiwan’s national governance as well as its participation in global governance in relation to humanitarian aid. Including case studies on Taiwan’s application to become an observer to the WHO, and its foreign-aid policy and practice dealing with disease outbreaks and natural disasters, Guilloux explores the complexities and dilemmas of providing humanitarian aid to people in need and distress. Taking into account Taiwan's unclear status in the global arena, and how in its efforts Taiwan faces both international isolation and opposition from the People's Republic of China at multiple levels. Taiwan, Humanitarianism and Global Governance will be of interest for scholars of Chinese studies, Taiwan Studies, East Asian politics and International Relations, and environmental politics and humanitarian studies.


An Epidemic Of Rumors

Author by : Jon D. Lee
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of Colorado
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Total Read : 79
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Description : In An Epidemic of Rumors, Jon D. Lee examines the human response to epidemics through the lens of the 2003 SARS epidemic. Societies usually respond to the eruption of disease by constructing stories, jokes, conspiracy theories, legends, and rumors, but these narratives are often more damaging than the diseases they reference. The information disseminated through them is often inaccurate, incorporating xenophobic explanations of the disease’s origins and questionable medical information about potential cures and treatment. Folklore studies brings important and useful perspectives to understanding cultural responses to the outbreak of disease. Through this etiological study Lee shows the similarities between the narratives of the SARS outbreak and the narratives of other contemporary disease outbreaks like AIDS and the H1N1 virus. His analysis suggests that these disease narratives do not spring up with new outbreaks or diseases but are in continuous circulation and are recycled opportunistically. Lee also explores whether this predictability of vernacular disease narratives presents the opportunity to create counter-narratives released systematically from the government or medical science to stymie the negative effects of the fearful rumors that so often inflame humanity. With potential for practical application to public health and health policy, An Epidemic of Rumors will be of interest to students and scholars of health, medicine, and folklore.


Global Public Health Vigilance

Author by : Lorna Weir
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Total Read : 79
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Description : Global Public Health Vigilance is the first sociological book to investigate recent changes in how global public health authorities imagine and respond to international threats to human health. This book explores a remarkable period of conceptual innovation during which infectious disease, historically the focus of international disease control, was displaced by "international public health emergencies," a concept that brought new responsibilities to public health authorities, helping to shape a new project of global public health security. Drawing on research conducted at the World Health Organization, this book analyzes the formation of a new social apparatus, global public health vigilance, for detecting, responding to and containing international public health emergencies. Between 1995 and 2005 a new form of global health surveillance was invented, international communicable disease control was securitized, and international health law was fundamentally revised. This timely volume raises critical questions about the institutional effects of the concept of emerging infectious diseases, the role of the news media in global health surveillance, the impact of changes in international health law on public health reasoning and practice, and the reconstitution of the World Health Organization as a power beyond national sovereignty and global governance. It initiates a new research agenda for social science research on public health.


Global Governance In The Age Of The Anthropocene

Author by : Markus Fraundorfer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Palgrave Macmillan
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Description : Why has global governance largely failed to effectively tackle some of the most pressing global environmental challenges of our time? What are the obstacles to effective global and planetary problem-solving? And which solutions and responses have global governance actors come up with to confront these challenges? This textbook teases out the tragic entanglements between dominant global governance dynamics and the global environmental challenges of the Anthropocene, showing how international and global cooperation mechanisms that evolved over the last two hundred years are deeply implicated in exacerbating many of today’s global environmental challenges. The book focuses on several global environmental challenges which are intrinsically interconnected, threatening to destabilise the entire Earth-system with serious consequences for human societies across the world. These global environmental challenges include infectious disease outbreaks, global food production processes, the pollution of freshwater resources, energy consumption patterns, deforestation and CO2 emissions. At the same time, the book also presents several alternative governance examples based on more democratic, citizen-based and holistic approaches to the global climate crisis, which point the way towards a new understanding of global governance in the age of the Anthropocene. This textbook is for undergraduate and postgraduate students of global governance, environmental politics and international relations.


Managing Global Health Security

Author by : A. Kamradt-Scott
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 21
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Description : Drawing on insights from international organization and securitization theory, the author investigates the World Health Organization and how its approach to global health security has changed and adapted since its creation in 1948. He also examines the organization's prospects for managing global health security now and into the future.


Global Health And International Relations

Author by : Colin McInnes
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 97
Total Download : 771
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : The long separation of health and International Relations, as distinct academic fields and policy arenas, has now dramatically changed. Health, concerned with the body, mind and spirit, has traditionally focused on disease and infirmity, whilst International Relations has been dominated by concerns of war, peace and security. Since the 1990s, however, the two fields have increasingly overlapped. How can we explain this shift and what are the implications for the future development of both fields? Colin McInnes and Kelley Lee examine four key intersections between health and International Relations today - foreign policy and health diplomacy, health and the global political economy, global health governance and global health security. The explosion of interest in these subjects has, in large part, been due to "real world" concerns - disease outbreaks, antibiotic resistance, counterfeit drugs and other risks to human health amid the spread of globalisation. Yet the authors contend that it is also important to understand how global health has been socially constructed, shaped in theory and practice by particular interests and normative frameworks. This groundbreaking book encourages readers to step back from problem-solving to ask how global health is being problematized in the first place, why certain agendas and issue areas are prioritised, and what determines the potential solutions put forth to address them? The palpable struggle to better understand the health risks facing a globalized world, and to strengthen collective action to deal with them effectively, begins - they argue - with a more reflexive and critical approach to this rapidly emerging subject.


Managing The Global Health Response To Epidemics

Author by : Mathilde Bourrier
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 41
Total Download : 597
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Description : Recent epidemics have prompted large-scale international interventions, aimed at mitigating the spread of disease in a globalized world. During a crisis, however, global health actions – including planning and organizing, communicating about risk, and cost–benefit evaluations – aren’t usually part of a single, integrated global response. Arguing that an uncoordinated approach can be challenged by local conditions and expectations, generating a wide range of resistance and difficulties, this volume provides important insights for future outbreak management and global health governance. Drawing on experiences with A(H1N1) and Ebola virus disease, the book is divided into three parts looking at how responses to global health crises have developed, lessons learned from particular pandemics and the ethical implications of our management of them. Individual chapters focus on, among other issues, financing, cost–benefit analysis, matrix management, risk communication and organizational strategies. Taking a social science perspective, this valuable book outlines the current state of global health emergency responses and explores ways in which they can be improved. It is a useful read for academics and practitioners interested in global health, the sociology of health and illness, health economics and emergency management.


Outbreak Culture

Author by : Pardis Sabeti
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 985
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Description : An award-winning genetic researcher and a tenacious journalist examine each phase of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest and deadliest of its kind. Their postmortem identifies factors that kept key information from reaching doctors, complicated the government’s response to the crisis, and left responders unprepared for the next outbreak.