Description : This book provides a comparative perspective on one of the most intriguing developments in law: the influence of basic rights and human rights in private law. It analyzes the application of basic rights and human rights, which are traditionally understood as public law rights, in private law, and discusses the related spillover effects and changing perspectives in legal doctrine and practice. It provides examples where basic rights and human rights influence judicial reasoning and lead to changes of legislation in contract law, tort law, property law, family law, and copyright law. Providing both context and background analysis for any critical examination of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights in private law, the book contributes to the current debate on an important issue that deserves the attention of legal practitioners, scholars, judges and others involved in the developments in a variety of the world’s jurisdictions. This book is based on the General Report and national reports commissioned by the International Academy of Comparative Law and written for the XIXth International Congress of Comparative Law in Vienna, Austria, in the summer of 2014.
Description : Privacy today is much debated as an individual's right against real or feared intrusions by the state, as exemplified by proposed identity cards and surveillance measures in the United Kingdom. In contrast, invasions of privacy by private individuals or bodies tend to arouse less concern. This book attempts to fill the gap by looking at the horizontal application of human rights after Douglas v Hello, Campbell v MGN and Caroline von Hannover v Germany. It provides a conceptual and theoretical framework and also considers specific particularly sensitive areas of law relating to privacy protection, such as intellectual property, employment and media law. It provides comparative perspectives by relating Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which serves as a focal point, to UK, Dutch, German and European Communities law. Several common threads are revealed running across jurisdictions and different areas of law and aspects of privacy. The most notable is the definition of privacy in terms of the autonomy of the individual, a notion associated with the liberal state in the classic sense but now acquiring more content as a human right also linked to ideas of social justice.
Description : A comparative investigation into the revolution in private law in the era of human rights Scotland and South Africa are mixed jurisdictions, combining features of common law and civil law traditions. Over the last decade a shared feature in both Scotland and South Africa has been a new and intense focus on human rights. In Scotland the European Convention on Human Rights now constitutes an important element in the foundation of all domestic law. Similarly, the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, adopted in 1996, has as its cornerstone a Bill of Rights that binds not only the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and all organs of state, but also private parties. Of course the "constitutional moments" from which these documents sprang were very different and the Scottish and South African experience in some aspects could not be more dissimilar. Yet in many respects the parallels are close and compelling. This book, written by experts from both jurisdictions, examines exactly how human-rights provisions influence private law, looking at all branches of the subject. Moreover, it gives a unique perspective by comparing the approach in these kindred legal systems, thus providing a benchmark for both.
Description : This book deals with convergences of legal doctrine despite jurisdictional, cultural, and political barriers, and of divergences due to such barriers, examining topics that are of vital importance to contemporary legal scholars. Written by leading scholars from more than twenty countries, its thirty-two chapters present a comparative analysis of cutting-edge legal topics of the 21st century. While each of the countries covered stands alone as a sovereign state, in a technologically advanced world their disparate systems nonetheless show comparable strategies in dealing with complex legal issues. The book is a critical addition to the library of any scholar hoping to keep abreast of the major trends in contemporary law. It covers a vast area of topics that are dealt with from a comparative point of view and represents the current state of law in each area.
Description : Traditionally,the theory of human rights limited its application to the public domain, namely the relationships between individuals and public authorities. The great expansion of human rights legislation and concepts in modern national and international law has given rise to a major issue relating to their potential impact on private relationships. This book examines this important topic, which may revolutionize private law. It presents new approaches which strive to broaden the application of human rights to the private field on the ground that power can be abused and human rights can be infringed even when all parties are private. The subject is examined from theoretical and comparative perspectives by leading scholars representing a diversity of legal systems - the United States, Canada, England, South Africa, Germany and Israel. Among the contributors are Professor Todd Rakoff (Harvard), Professor Roger Brownsword (Sheffield), Professor Hugh Beale (Warwick) and Professor Ewan McKendrick (Oxford), Professor Ernest Weinrib and Professor Lorraine Weinrib (Toronto), Professor Christian Starck (Gottingen), Professor Andreas Heldrich (Munich) and others.
Description : This publication aims at establishing a clear analysis of the nature and growth of the C-factor (C for constitutionalisation) in Germany, France, the UK and The Netherlands.
Description : In recent years the impact of human rights and fundamental rights on private law has risen in prominence and led to a whole series of detailed investigations. 'Constitutionalization of private law' is the flag under which most of the research on the increasing impact of national constitutional rights on national private legal orders is sailing. In the absence of a European Constitution, the constitutionalization of European private law suggests a process: constitutionalization instead of constituent power, demos, and the magic constitutional moment. The Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention of Human Rights constitute the two pillars on which the transformation of European private law rests. This volume clearly demonstrates the change that has taken place, at the national and at the European level. Private law is no longer immune to the intrusion of fundamental and human rights. Whilst member states and the EU are driving the process by adopting ever more concrete and more comprehensive lists of human and fundamental rights, at the national, the European, and international level with overlapping contents, the true and key players in this development are the national and European courts. Contributions to this volume give this process a face and a direction, which is highlighted in the introduction by Hans-W. Micklitz.
Description : This compendium provides an introduction to the intricate interplay of fundamental rights and private law. It identifies areas of commercial and civil law where fundamental rights from different sources play a key role in the interpretation and application of private law rules. In addition, it offers a collection of case law examples from across the EU which illustrate differences and commonalities regarding the influence of fundamental rights on civil and commercial litigation. It is thus well suited for the training of judges and as a source of inspiration for national legislators. Contributors to the study co-ordinated by the European Legal Studies Institute at University of Osnabrück with the support of the European Commission’s "Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Programme" include high ranking judges as well as young researchers from across the EU. "As the Commissioner for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship, I can only praise the pertinent purpose and the methodology of the compendium which underlines the concrete approach the authors adopted." Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission
Description : The Human Rights Act 1998 has had a profound effect in numerous private law decisions and has been the subject of extensive academic debate, in particular on the issue of the extent to which it has horizontal effect and its application in disputes between individuals. With contributions from a variety of academics and practitioners, this volume covers and contributes to the academic debate on horizontal effect and considers how theory matches up with case law; the limits of the Act for private law; and its impact on key areas including privacy, defamation, negligence, nuisance, property, commercial law and employment. Together, the book provides a practical critique of the areas discussed, which will be of academic interest to theorists and of practical benefit to lawyers and judges who wish to understand how the academic debates can be brought to bear in particular cases.