## The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Publsiher : Elsevier Total Pages : 690 Release : 2007-08-13 ISBN : 9780080549392 Category : Mathematics Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic Book Excerpt:

The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence. The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained. In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs. The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.

## Handbook of the History of Logic The many valued and nonmonotonic turn in logic

 Author : Dov M. Gabbay,John Hayden Woods Publsiher : Unknown Total Pages : 135 Release : 2004 ISBN : 1928374650XXX Category : Logic Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the History of Logic The many valued and nonmonotonic turn in logic Book Excerpt:

## Handbook of the History of Logic V 8 The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic

 Author : Anonim Publsiher : Unknown Total Pages : 135 Release : 2007 ISBN : 1928374650XXX Category : Electronic Book Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the History of Logic V 8 The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic Book Excerpt:

## Pluralism Transnationalism and Culture in Asian Law

 Author : Gary F Bell Publsiher : Flipside Digital Content Company Inc. Total Pages : 135 Release : 2018-02-14 ISBN : 9814786675 Category : Law Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pluralism Transnationalism and Culture in Asian Law Book Excerpt:

This book stems from a symposium held at the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore in honour of the pioneer in the field of legal pluralism, Professor M.B. Hooker. It gathers essays from admirers and friends who add their own contributions on legal pluralism, transnationalism and culture in Asia. The book opens with an account of M.B. Hooker colourful and prolific career. The authors then approach legal pluralism through legal theory, legal anthropology, comparative law, law and religion, constitutional law, even Islamic art, thus reflecting the broad approaches of Professor Hooker's scholarship. While most of the book focuses mainly on Southeast Asia, it also reaches out to all of Asia up to Israel, and even includes a chapter comparing Indonesia and Egypt.

## Deductive Systems in Traditional and Modern Logic

 Author : Alex Citkin,UrszulaWybraniec-Skardowska Publsiher : MDPI Total Pages : 298 Release : 2020-11-18 ISBN : 303943358X Category : Mathematics Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Deductive Systems in Traditional and Modern Logic Book Excerpt:

The book provides a contemporary view on different aspects of the deductive systems in various types of logics including term logics, propositional logics, logics of refutation, non-Fregean logics, higher order logics and arithmetic.

## Advances in Fuzzy Logic and Technology 2017

 Author : Janusz Kacprzyk,Eulalia Szmidt,Slawomir Zadrożny,K. T. Atanassov,Maciej Krawczak Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 628 Release : 2017-08-29 ISBN : 3319668242 Category : Technology & Engineering Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Fuzzy Logic and Technology 2017 Book Excerpt:

This volume constitutes the proceedings of two collocated international conferences: EUSFLAT-2017 – the 10th edition of the flagship Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology held in Warsaw, Poland, on September 11–15, 2017, and IWIFSGN’2017 – The Sixteenth International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets, held in Warsaw on September 13–15, 2017. The conferences were organized by the Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department IV of Engineering Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Polish Operational and Systems Research Society in collaboration with the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology (EUSFLAT), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and various European universities. The aim of the EUSFLAT-2017 was to bring together theoreticians and practitioners working on fuzzy logic, fuzzy systems, soft computing and related areas and to provide a platform for exchanging ideas and discussing the l atest trends and ideas, while the aim of IWIFSGN’2017 was to discuss new developments in extensions of the concept of a fuzzy set, such as an intuitionistic fuzzy set, as well as other concepts, like that of a generalized net. The papers included, written by leading international experts, as well as the special sessions and panel discussions contribute to the development the field, strengthen collaborations and intensify networking.

## R Calculus II Many Valued Logics

 Author : Wei Li Publsiher : Springer Nature Total Pages : 135 Release : 2022 ISBN : 9811692947 Category : Electronic Book Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

R Calculus II Many Valued Logics Book Excerpt:

## Relations Concrete Abstract And Applied An Introduction

 Author : Herbert Toth Publsiher : World Scientific Total Pages : 572 Release : 2020-06-22 ISBN : 9811220360 Category : Mathematics Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Relations Concrete Abstract And Applied An Introduction Book Excerpt:

The book is intended as an invitation to the topic of relations on a rather general basis. It fills the gap between the basic knowledge offered in countless introductory papers and books (usually comprising orders and equivalences) and the highly specialized monographs on mainly relation algebras, many-valued (fuzzy) relations, or graphs. This is done not only by presenting theoretical results but also by giving hints to some of the many interesting application areas (also including their respective theoretical basics).This book is a new — and the first of its kind — compilation of known results on binary relations. It offers relational concepts in both reasonable depth and broadness, and also provides insight into the vast diversity of theoretical results as well as application possibilities beyond the commonly known examples.This book is unique by the spectrum of the topics it handles. As indicated in its title these are:

## Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic

 Author : José Luis Usó-Doménech ,Josué Antonio Nescolarde-Selva ,Lorena Segura-Abad Publsiher : Infinite Study Total Pages : 11 Release : 2022 ISBN : 1928374650XXX Category : Electronic Book Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic Book Excerpt:

Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been deﬁned to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition.

## Probabilistic Extensions of Various Logical Systems

 Author : Zoran Ognjanović Publsiher : Springer Nature Total Pages : 238 Release : 2020-07-17 ISBN : 3030529541 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Probabilistic Extensions of Various Logical Systems Book Excerpt:

The contributions in this book survey results on combinations of probabilistic and various other classical, temporal and justification logical systems. Formal languages of these logics are extended with probabilistic operators. The aim is to provide a systematic overview and an accessible presentation of mathematical techniques used to obtain results on formalization, completeness, compactness and decidability. The book will be of value to researchers in logic and it can be used as a supplementary text in graduate courses on non-classical logics.

## A Logical Theory of Causality

 Author : Alexander Bochman Publsiher : MIT Press Total Pages : 366 Release : 2021-08-17 ISBN : 0262362244 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Logical Theory of Causality Book Excerpt:

A general formal theory of causal reasoning as a logical study of causal models, reasoning, and inference. In this book, Alexander Bochman presents a general formal theory of causal reasoning as a logical study of causal models, reasoning, and inference, basing it on a supposition that causal reasoning is not a competitor of logical reasoning but its complement for situations lacking logically sufficient data or knowledge. Bochman also explores the relationship of this theory with the popular structural equation approach to causality proposed by Judea Pearl and explores several applications ranging from artificial intelligence to legal theory, including abduction, counterfactuals, actual and proximate causality, dynamic causal models, and reasoning about action and change in artificial intelligence. As logical preparation, before introducing causal concepts, Bochman describes an alternative, situation-based semantics for classical logic that provides a better understanding of what can be captured by purely logical means. He then presents another prerequisite, outlining those parts of a general theory of nonmonotonic reasoning that are relevant to his own theory. These two components provide a logical background for the main, two-tier formalism of the causal calculus that serves as the formal basis of his theory. He presents the main causal formalism of the book as a natural generalization of classical logic that allows for causal reasoning. This provides a formal background for subsequent chapters. Finally, Bochman presents a generalization of causal reasoning to dynamic domains.

## Transnational Law

 Author : Miguel Maduro,Kaarlo Tuori,Suvi Sankari Publsiher : Cambridge University Press Total Pages : 409 Release : 2014-05-01 ISBN : 1107028310 Category : Law Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transnational Law Book Excerpt:

Examination of the effects of law's de-nationalisation by placing European law in the context of transnational law.

## Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence

 Author : Vicenç Torra,Yasuo Narukawa,Isabel Aguiló,Manuel González-Hidalgo Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 319 Release : 2018-10-08 ISBN : 3030002020 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence Book Excerpt:

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence, MDAI 2018, held in Mallorca, Spain, in October 2018. The 24 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions. The book also contains one invited talk in full paper length. The papers were organized in topical sections named: aggregation operators, fuzzy measures and integrals; decision making; clustering and classification; and data privacy and security.

## The History and Philosophy of Polish Logic

 Author : K. Mulligan,K. Kijania-PLacek,T. Placek,Katarzyna Kijania-Placek Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 308 Release : 2016-01-26 ISBN : 1137030895 Category : Philosophy Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The History and Philosophy of Polish Logic Book Excerpt:

The book presents the state of the art of research into the legacy of interwar Polish analytic philosophy and exemplifies different approaches to the history of philosophy. It contains discussions and reconstructions of aspects of Polish philosophy and logic as well as reactions to and developments of this tradition.

## Reason Method and Value

 Author : Dale Jacquette Publsiher : Walter de Gruyter Total Pages : 643 Release : 2013-05-02 ISBN : 3110329050 Category : Philosophy Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reason Method and Value Book Excerpt:

Nicholas Rescher has enjoyed a long and distinguished career in philosophy, writing on many different areas from logic to philosophy of language, epistemology, pragmatism, ethics and political philosophy, and metaphilosophy. Reason, Method, and Value: A Reader on the Philosophy of Nicholas Rescher offers a selection of Rescher's writings over a span of decades representing the core of his prodigious research interests in six key areas. Each section of the *Reader* is accompanied by a compact critical introduction written by a leading philosophical scholar with spezial expertise in Rescher's philosophy, and the volume opens with an appreciative introduction written by the editor and a concluding retrospective by Rescher, looking back over his oeuvre and explaining connecting themes and the unity of system contained in this extensive body of work. Taken together, the volume encapsulates the heart of Rescher's impressive lifelong contributions to philosophy between two covers, in a single volume that provides a solid overview of his thought while serving to direct readers to the corpus of Rescher's writings for amore complete picture.

## Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge Based Systems Applications

 Author : Jesús Medina,Manuel Ojeda-Aciego,José Luis Verdegay,Irina Perfilieva,Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier,Ronald R. Yager Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 764 Release : 2018-05-29 ISBN : 3319914790 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge Based Systems Applications Book Excerpt:

This three volume set (CCIS 853-855) constitutes the proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU 2017, held in Cádiz, Spain, in June 2018. The 193 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 383 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on advances on explainable artificial intelligence; aggregation operators, fuzzy metrics and applications; belief function theory and its applications; current techniques to model, process and describe time series; discrete models and computational intelligence; formal concept analysis and uncertainty; fuzzy implication functions; fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence problems; fuzzy mathematical analysis and applications; fuzzy methods in data mining and knowledge discovery; fuzzy transforms: theory and applications to data analysis and image processing; imprecise probabilities: foundations and applications; mathematical fuzzy logic, mathematical morphology; measures of comparison and entropies for fuzzy sets and their extensions; new trends in data aggregation; pre-aggregation functions and generalized forms of monotonicity; rough and fuzzy similarity modelling tools; soft computing for decision making in uncertainty; soft computing in information retrieval and sentiment analysis; tri-partitions and uncertainty; decision making modeling and applications; logical methods in mining knowledge from big data; metaheuristics and machine learning; optimization models for modern analytics; uncertainty in medicine; uncertainty in Video/Image Processing (UVIP).

## Paraconsistent Logic Consistency Contradiction and Negation

 Author : Walter Carnielli,Marcelo Esteban Coniglio Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 398 Release : 2016-06-14 ISBN : 3319332058 Category : Philosophy Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Paraconsistent Logic Consistency Contradiction and Negation Book Excerpt:

This book is the first in the field of paraconsistency to offer a comprehensive overview of the subject, including connections to other logics and applications in information processing, linguistics, reasoning and argumentation, and philosophy of science. It is recommended reading for anyone interested in the question of reasoning and argumentation in the presence of contradictions, in semantics, in the paradoxes of set theory and in the puzzling properties of negation in logic programming. Paraconsistent logic comprises a major logical theory and offers the broadest possible perspective on the debate of negation in logic and philosophy. It is a powerful tool for reasoning under contradictoriness as it investigates logic systems in which contradictory information does not lead to arbitrary conclusions. Reasoning under contradictions constitutes one of most important and creative achievements in contemporary logic, with deep roots in philosophical questions involving negation and consistency This book offers an invaluable introduction to a topic of central importance in logic and philosophy. It discusses (i) the history of paraconsistent logic; (ii) language, negation, contradiction, consistency and inconsistency; (iii) logics of formal inconsistency (LFIs) and the main paraconsistent propositional systems; (iv) many-valued companions, possible-translations semantics and non-deterministic semantics; (v) paraconsistent modal logics; (vi) first-order paraconsistent logics; (vii) applications to information processing, databases and quantum computation; and (viii) applications to deontic paradoxes, connections to Eastern thought and to dialogical reasoning.

## Diagrammatic Representation and Inference

 Author : Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen,Peter Chapman,Leonie Bosveld-de Smet,Valeria Giardino,James Corter,Sven Linker Publsiher : Springer Nature Total Pages : 554 Release : 2020-08-17 ISBN : 3030542491 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diagrammatic Representation and Inference Book Excerpt:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Diagrams, Diagrams 2020, held in Tallinn, Estonia, in August 2020.* The 20 full papers and 16 short papers presented together with 18 posters were carefully reviewed and selected from 82 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: diagrams in mathematics; diagram design, principles, and classification; reasoning with diagrams; Euler and Venn diagrams; empirical studies and cognition; logic and diagrams; and posters. *The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapters ‘Modality and Uncertainty in Data Visualization: A Corpus Approach to the Use of Connecting Lines,’ ‘On Effects of Changing Multi-Attribute Table Design on Decision Making: An Eye Tracking Study,’ ‘Truth Graph: A Novel Method for Minimizing Boolean Algebra Expressions by Using Graphs,’ ‘The DNA Framework of Visualization’ and ‘Visualizing Curricula’ are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

## Advances in Computational Intelligence Part II

 Author : Salvatore Greco,Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier,Giulianella Coletti,Mario Fedrizzi,Benedetto Matarazzo,Ronald R. Yager Publsiher : Springer Total Pages : 600 Release : 2012-07-20 ISBN : 3642317154 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Computational Intelligence Part II Book Excerpt:

These four volumes (CCIS 297, 298, 299, 300) constitute the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU 2012, held in Catania, Italy, in July 2012. The 258 revised full papers presented together with six invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on fuzzy machine learning and on-line modeling; computing with words and decision making; soft computing in computer vision; rough sets and complex data analysis: theory and applications; intelligent databases and information system; information fusion systems; philosophical and methodological aspects of soft computing; basic issues in rough sets; 40th anniversary of the measures of fuziness; SPS11 uncertainty in profiling systems and applications; handling uncertainty with copulas; formal methods to deal with uncertainty of many-valued events; linguistic summarization and description of data; fuzzy implications: theory and applications; sensing and data mining for teaching and learning; theory and applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets; approximate aspects of data mining and database analytics; fuzzy numbers and their applications; information processing and management of uncertainty in knowledge-based systems; aggregation functions; imprecise probabilities; probabilistic graphical models with imprecision: theory and applications; belief function theory: basics and/or applications; fuzzy uncertainty in economics and business; new trends in De Finetti's approach; fuzzy measures and integrals; multicriteria decision making; uncertainty in privacy and security; uncertainty in the spirit of Pietro Benvenuti; coopetition; game theory; probabilistic approach.

## Answer Set Programming for Continuous Domains A Fuzzy Logic Approach

 Author : Jeroen Janssen,Steven Schockaert,Dirk Vermeir,Martine De Cock Publsiher : Springer Science & Business Media Total Pages : 174 Release : 2012-04-26 ISBN : 9491216597 Category : Computers Language : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Answer Set Programming for Continuous Domains A Fuzzy Logic Approach Book Excerpt:

Answer set programming (ASP) is a declarative language tailored towards solving combinatorial optimization problems. It has been successfully applied to e.g. planning problems, configuration and verification of software, diagnosis and database repairs. However, ASP is not directly suitable for modeling problems with continuous domains. Such problems occur naturally in diverse fields such as the design of gas and electricity networks, computer vision and investment portfolios. To overcome this problem we study FASP, a combination of ASP with fuzzy logic -- a class of manyvalued logics that can handle continuity. We specifically focus on the following issues: 1. An important question when modeling continuous optimization problems is how we should handle overconstrained problems, i.e. problems that have no solutions. In many cases we can opt to accept an imperfect solution, i.e. a solution that does not satisfy all the stated rules (constraints). However, this leads to the question: what imperfect solutions should we choose? We investigate this question and improve upon the state-of-the-art by proposing an approach based on aggregation functions. 2. Users of a programming language often want a rich language that is easy to model in. However, implementers and theoreticians prefer a small language that is easy to implement and reason about. We create a bridge between these two desires by proposing a small core language for FASP and by showing that this language is capable of expressing many of its common extensions such as constraints, monotonically decreasing functions, aggregators, S-implicators and classical negation. 3. A well-known technique for solving ASP consists of translating a program P to a propositional theory whose models exactly correspond to the answer sets of P. We show how this technique can be generalized to FASP, paving the way to implement efficient fuzzy answer set solvers that can take advantage of existing fuzzy reasoners.