The Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications 2021

The Metropolitan Museum of Art  Publications 2021
Author: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 26
Release: 2021-04-29
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications 2021 Book Excerpt:

This catalogue, published annually by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, announces the Museum's publications for that year. It also features notable backlist titles and provide a complete list of books available in print at the time of publication.

Before Yesterday We Could Fly An Afrofuturist Period Room

Before Yesterday We Could Fly  An Afrofuturist Period Room
Author: Ian Alteveer,Hannah Beachler,Sarah Lawrence,Michelle D. Commander
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2022-02-04
ISBN: 1588397459
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Before Yesterday We Could Fly An Afrofuturist Period Room Book Excerpt:

Seneca Village—a vibrant nineteenth-century community of predominantly Black landowners and tenants—flourished just west of The Met's current location until the city used eminent domain to seize the land in 1857, displacing its residents to make room for the construction of Central Park. The Met's latest Bulletin, Before Yesterday We Could Fly: An Afrofuturist Period Room, imagines a different history in the form of a new type of installation that departs from traditionally Eurocentric period displays to present a fictional but resonant domestic space. Texts by Ian Alteveer, Hannah Beachler, Michelle Commander, and Sarah Lawrence honor the real, lived history of the Seneca Village residents, while also exploring works by Black creators from the eighteenth century to the present day through the empowering lens of Afrofuturism. Including images of new works by Njideka Akunyili Crosby, Roberto Lugo, and Cyrus Kabiru, as well as an original graphic novella by New York Times bestselling author and illustrator John Jennings, this publication foregrounds generations of Black creativity and looks forward to a resilient future.

The Medici Portraits and Politics 1512 1570

The Medici  Portraits and Politics 1512   1570
Author: Keith Christiansen,Carlo Falciani,Andrea Bayer,Elizabeth Cropper,Davide Gasparotto,Sefy Hendler,Antonella Fenech Kroke,Tommaso Mozzati,Elizabeth Pilliod,Julia Siemon,Linda Wolk-Simon
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2021-04-19
ISBN: 1588397300
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Medici Portraits and Politics 1512 1570 Book Excerpt:

Between 1512 and 1570, Florence underwent dramatic political transformations. As citizens jockeyed for prominence, portraits became an essential means not only of recording a likeness but also of conveying a sitter’s character, social position, and cultural ambitions. This fascinating book explores the ways that painters (including Jacopo Pontormo, Agnolo Bronzino, and Francesco Salviati), sculptors (such as Benvenuto Cellini), and artists in other media endowed their works with an erudite and self-consciously stylish character that made Florentine portraiture distinctive. The Medici family had ruled Florence without interruption between 1434 and 1494. Following their return to power in 1512, Cosimo I de’ Medici, who became the second Duke of Florence in 1537, demonstrated a particularly shrewd ability to wield culture as a political tool in order to transform Florence into a dynastic duchy and give Florentine art the central position it has held ever since. Featuring more than ninety remarkable paintings, sculptures, works on paper, and medals, this volume is written by a team of leading international authors and presents a sweeping, penetrating exploration of a crucial and vibrant period in Italian art.

Modern Times British Prints 1913 1939

Modern Times  British Prints  1913   1939
Author: Jennifer Farrell
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2021-10-20
ISBN: 1588397394
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Times British Prints 1913 1939 Book Excerpt:

The bold graphic images made by artists affiliated with Vorticism, British Futurism, and the Grosvenor School of Modern Art capture the optimism and anxiety of early twentieth-century Britain. This richly illustrated volume features rare British prints from the Leslie and Johanna Garfield collection dating between 1913 and 1939—a period marked by two world wars, a global pandemic, the Great Depression, and the rise of Fascism and Communism, but also new technologies, women’s suffrage, and a growing focus on public access to art. Essays explore how artists turned to printmaking to alleviate trauma, memorialize their wartime experiences, and capture the aspirations and fears of the twenties and thirties. At the heart of the catalogue are the colorful linocuts made by artists associated with London’s celebrated Grosvenor School. The visually striking compositions by Sybil Andrews, Claude Flight, Cyril E. Power, and Lill Tschudi, among others, convey the vitality of quotidian life during the machine age.

Jules Tavernier and the Elem Pomo

Jules Tavernier and the Elem Pomo
Author: Elizabeth Kornhauser,Shannon Vittoria,Robert Joseph Geary
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2021-08-01
ISBN: 1588397386
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Jules Tavernier and the Elem Pomo Book Excerpt:

Investigating the career of the French-born American artist Jules Tavernier (1844–1889), this issue of the Bulletin recounts the artist’s travels through the American West and examines his portrayals of some of the Indigenous communities he encountered. The story focuses on Tavernier’s masterwork, Dance in a Subterranean Roundhouse at Clear Lake, California (1878), which depicts a ceremonial dance—known as mfom Xe, or “people dance”—performed by the Pomo community of Elem at Clear Lake, in Northern California. Robert Joseph Geary, an Elem Pomo cultural leader, eloquently describes his first reactions upon seeing Tavernier’s depiction of his ancestors and the significance of the mfom Xe ceremony. Elizabeth Kornhauser and Shannon Vittoria provide additional historical context for the painting and show how it recognizes the rich vitality of Elem Pomo culture while also exposing the threat posed to the community by White settlers. This Bulletin juxtaposes paintings, prints, watercolors, and photographs by Tavernier and other artists with examples of historic and contemporary Pomo basketry and regalia to celebrate the resiliency of the Pomo peoples and highlight their continued cultural presence.

Inspiring Walt Disney The Animation of French Decorative Arts

Inspiring Walt Disney  The Animation of French Decorative Arts
Author: Wolf Burchard
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2021-12-06
ISBN: 1588397416
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Inspiring Walt Disney The Animation of French Decorative Arts Book Excerpt:

Pink castles, talking sofas, and objects coming to life: what may sound like the fantasies of Hollywood dream-maker Walt Disney were in fact the figments of the colorful salons of Rococo Paris. Exploring the novel use of French motifs in Disney films and theme parks, this publication features forty works of eighteenth-century European design—from tapestries and furniture to Boulle clocks and Sèvres porcelain—alongside 150 Disney film stills, drawings, and other works on paper. The text connects these art forms through a shared dedication to craftsmanship and highlights references to European art in Disney films, including nods to Gothic Revival architecture in Cinderella (1950);bejeweled, medieval manuscripts in Sleeping Beauty (1959); and Rococo-inspired furnishings and objects brought to life in Beauty and the Beast (1991). Bridging fact and fantasy, this book draws remarkable new parallels between Disney’s magical creations and their artistic inspirations.

How to Read Greek Sculpture

How to Read Greek Sculpture
Author: Seán Hemingway
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 168
Release: 2021-09-01
ISBN: 1588397238
Category: Architecture
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

How to Read Greek Sculpture Book Excerpt:

The sculptural tradition developed by the ancient Greeks is justifiably considered one of the most remarkable achievements of Western art. This richly illustrated volume introduces eight centuries of Greek sculpture, from the early rectilinear designs of the Geometric period (ca. 900–700 B.C.) through the groundbreaking creativity of the Archaic and Classical periods to the dramatic monumental achievements of the Hellenistic Age (323–31 B.C.). A generous selection of objects and materials—ranging from the sacred to the everyday, from bronze and marble to gold, ivory, and terracotta—allows for an especially appealing picture not only of Greek art but also of life in ancient Greece. Sculptures of deities such as Zeus, Athena, and Eros and architectural elements from temples are included, as are depictions of athletes and animals (both domesticated and wild), statuettes of dancers and actors, funerary reliefs, perfume vases, and jewelry. The informative text provides a comprehensive introduction and insightful discussions of forty objects selected from the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Full-page photographs of the featured works are supplemented by many illuminating details and comparative illustrations. The latest in The Met’s widely acclaimed How to Read series, this publication reveals how, more than two millennia ago, Greek artists brilliantly captured the fundamental aspects of the human condition.

Spain 1000 1200 Art at the Frontiers of Faith

Spain  1000   1200  Art at the Frontiers of Faith
Author: Julia Perratore
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2021-11-01
ISBN: 1588397408
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spain 1000 1200 Art at the Frontiers of Faith Book Excerpt:

Spain, 1000–1200: Art at the Frontiers of Faith tells a nuanced story of the dynamic and interconnected medieval Iberian Peninsula while celebrating the artistic exchange among Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the region during the Middle Ages. This Bulletin emphasizes the variety and richness of the Museum’s holdings of medieval Iberian artworks which include mosaics, frescos, architectural decorations, manuscripts, textiles, ivories, and metalwork. Exploring how artists in medieval Spain drew from many sources of inspiration and navigated religious differences in their art, this text underscores the complexity of interfaith interaction during a pivotal era in Spanish history.

The Roof Garden Commission

The Roof Garden Commission
Author: Shanay Jhaveri ,Jack Halberstam,Sheena Wagstaff
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 64
Release: 2021-05-24
ISBN: 1588397297
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Roof Garden Commission Book Excerpt:

Alex Da Corte confronts themes of identity and consumerism in his work, placing familiar objects and cultural icons in surprising and surreal contexts. As Long as the Sun Lasts, his new site-specific work commissioned by The Met for its Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Roof Garden, "introduces" the beloved Sesame Street character Big Bird to the kinetic sculptures of Alexander Calder. As discussed by curator Shanay Jhaveri in his incisive essay, Da Corte's working method entails a deep immersion in art history, popular culture, and his personal story. A second essay by cultural critic Jack Halberstam provides a compelling consideration of As Long as the Sun Lasts in the context of Da Corte's earlier work. In a conversation with Sheena Wagstaff, the artist further discusses his diverse influences, from Renaissance painting to horror films, and elaborates on his imaginative process.

The African Origin of Civilization

The African Origin of Civilization
Author: Diana Craig Patch,Alisa LaGamma
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1588397505
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The African Origin of Civilization Book Excerpt:

This Bulletin highlights five millennia of extraordinary artistic production on the African continent. Twenty-one pairings unite masterpieces from the Museum’s collections of ancient Egyptian and West and Central African art to reveal unexpected parallels and contrasts across time and cultures. The title pays special homage to Senegalese scholar and humanist Cheikh Anta Diop, whose book The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality (1974) challenged prevailing attitudes and advocated for recentering Africa as the source of humanity’s common ancestors and many widespread cultural practices. Building on Diop’s premise, this volume allows readers to delve into the rich histories and diverse artistic traditions from the cradle of human creativity.

Charles Ray Figure Ground

Charles Ray  Figure Ground
Author: Kelly Baum,Brinda Kumar,Hal Foster
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2022-01-30
ISBN: 1588397424
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Charles Ray Figure Ground Book Excerpt:

This incisive publication explores the formal, conceptual, political, and technical aspects of the work of contemporary American artist Charles Ray. For Charles Ray (born 1953), sculpture is a way of thinking that informs his work across a wide range of media-from gelatin silver prints to porcelain, fiberglass, wood, and steel. Spanning the whole of his fifty-year career, Charles Ray: Figure Ground considers the artist's intriguing, often unsettling sculptures from both the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in relation to his early photographs and performances. It also explores his interest in Mark Twain's 1884 novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Kelly Baum addresses patterns and patterning in Ray's art, foregrounding his engagement with preexisting traditions, classicism among them, as well as charged issues around race, gender, and sexuality. Brinda Kumar investigates the modalities of touch that run through Ray's work, while a reflection by Ray himself and a conversation between the artist and Hal Foster offer further insights into his multifaceted practice.

Alice Neel People Come First

Alice Neel  People Come First
Author: Kelly Baum,Randall Griffey,Meredith A. Brown,Julia Bryan-Wilson,Susanna V. Temkin
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2021-03-15
ISBN: 1588397254
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Alice Neel People Come First Book Excerpt:

"For me, people come first," Alice Neel (1900–1984) declared in 1950. "I have tried to assert the dignity and eternal importance of the human being." This ambitious publication surveys Neel's nearly 70-year career through the lens of her radical humanism. Remarkable portraits of victims of the Great Depression, fellow residents of Spanish Harlem, leaders of political organizations, queer artists, visibly pregnant women, and members of New York's global diaspora reveal that Neel viewed humanism as both a political and philosophical ideal. In addition to these paintings of famous and unknown sitters, the more than 100 works highlighted include Neel's emotionally charged cityscapes and still lifes as well as the artist’s erotic pastels and watercolors. Essays tackle Neel's portrayal of LGBTQ subjects; her unique aesthetic language, which merged abstraction and figuration; and her commitment to progressive politics, civil rights, feminism, and racial diversity. The authors also explore Neel's highly personal preoccupations with death, illness, and motherhood while reasserting her place in the broader cultural history of the 20th century.

Surrealism Beyond Borders

Surrealism Beyond Borders
Author: Stephanie D'Alessandro,Matthew Gale
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2021-10-04
ISBN: 1588397270
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surrealism Beyond Borders Book Excerpt:

Surrealism Beyond Borders challenges conventional narratives of a revolutionary artistic, literary, and philosophical movement. Tracing Surrealism's influence and legacy from the 1920s to the late 1970s in places as geographically diverse as Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Romania, Syria, Thailand, and Turkey, this publication includes more than 300 works of art in a variety of media by well-known figures—including Dalí, Ernst, Kahlo, Magritte, and Miró—as well as numerous artists who are less widely known. Contributions from more than forty distinguished international scholars explore the network of Surrealist exchange and collaboration, artists' responses to the challenges of social and political unrest, and the experience of displacement and exile in the twentieth century. The multiple narratives addressed in this expansive book move beyond the borders of history, geography, and nationality to provocatively redraw the map of Surrealism.

The Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art Terracotta Oil Lamps

The Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art  Terracotta Oil Lamps
Author: Christopher S. Lightfoot
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 266
Release: 2021-05-21
ISBN: 1588397246
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art Terracotta Oil Lamps Book Excerpt:

The fourth catalogue in a series that documents the renowned Cesnola Collection of Cypriot Art, this book focuses on the collection’s 453 terracotta oil lamps dating from the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Early Byzantine periods. The rich iconography on many of these common, everyday objects provides a rare look into daily life on Cyprus in antiquity and highlights the island’s participation in Roman artistic and cultural production. Each lamp is illustrated, and the accompanying text addresses typology, decoration, and makers’ marks on each of these objects that provide new insights into art, craft, and trade in the ancient Mediterranean.

In America A Lexicon of Fashion

In America  A Lexicon of Fashion
Author: Andrew Bolton,Amanda Garfinkel,Jessica Regan,Stephanie Kramer
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2022-05-02
ISBN: 1588397343
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

In America A Lexicon of Fashion Book Excerpt:

A new glossary of American fashion explores the expressive qualities of works by pioneering designers, who established the nation’s style, and the up-and-coming designers shaping its future. In America: A Lexicon of Fashion presents a modern vocabulary of American dress that emphasizes emotions while not discounting the simple, practical, and egalitarian character that has traditionally separated American ready-to-wear from European haute couture. Stunning new photography showcases over 100 garments from the 1940s to the present that offer a timely new perspective on the diverse and multifaceted nature of American fashion. The catalogue features works that display qualities such as belonging, comfort, desire, exuberance, fellowship, joy, nostalgia, optimism, reverence, spontaneity, strength, and sweetness by well-known designers and emerging creatives, including: Gilbert Adrian Geoffrey Beene Thom Browne Bonnie Cashin Willy Chavarria Olivia Cheng Telfar Clemens Oscar de la Renta Colm Dillane Perry Ellis Tremaine Emory Tom Ford Rudi Gernreich Halston Elizabeth Hawes Carolina Herrera Conner Ives Charles James Kerby Jean-Raymond Donna Karan Calvin Klein Michael Kors Ralph Lauren Vera Maxwell Claire McCardell Norman Norell Heron Preston Christopher John Rogers Raul Solís Hillary Taymour Diane von Furstenberg Vera Wang

Gifts from the Fire

Gifts from the Fire
Author: Alice Cooney Frelinghuysen,Martin Eidelberg
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2021-10-22
ISBN: 1588397327
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gifts from the Fire Book Excerpt:

From the 1880s to the 1950s, pioneering American artists drew upon the rich traditions and recent innovations of European and Asian ceramics to develop new designs, decorations, and techniques. The extraordinary range and inventiveness of these American interpretations of international trends—from the Arts and Crafts and Art Deco movements to the modernism of Matisse and the Wiener Werkstätte to abstracted, minimalist styles—are exemplified in this book by more than 180 works from the outstanding collection of Martin Eidelberg. Splendid new photography and engaging essays by two of the foremost experts on American art pottery trace the period’s decorative developments, from sculptural and painted ornament to adornment with deeply colored glazes and textures. Featured makers include the renowned Rookwood, Grueby, and Van Briggle Potteries, as well as leading artists such as Maija Grotell, George E. Ohr, Frederick Hurten Rhead, Louis C. Tiffany, Rockwell Kent, Adelaide Alsop Robineau, and Leza McVey. A vivid and accessible overview of American ceramics and ceramists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Gifts from the Fire reveals how artists working in the United States drew upon diverse, global influences to produce works of astonishing variety and ingenuity.

Recent Acquisitions A Selection 2018 20 Part II Late Eighteenth Century to Contemporary

Recent Acquisitions  A Selection  2018   20  Part II  Late Eighteenth Century to Contemporary
Author: Ian Alteveer,Kelly Baum,Kim Benzel,Deniz Beyazit,Monika Bincsik,Yaëlle Biro,John Byck,Iria Candela,John T. Carpenter,Henry Colburn,Stephanie D'Alessandro,Clare Davies,Jayson Kerr Dobney,Ashley Dunn,Maryam Ekhtiar,Douglas S. Eklund,Alyce Perry Englund,Jennifer Farrell,Mia Fineman,Amanda B. Garfinkel,Medill Higgins Harvey,Alison Hokanson,Mellissa J. Huber,Shanay Jhaveri,Ronda Kasl,Wolfram Koeppe,Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser,Brinda Kumar,Donald J. La Rocca,Alisa LaGamma,Constance McPhee,Asher E. Miller,Elyse Nelson,Maia Nuku,Stephen C. Pinson,Stuart W. Pyhrr,Jessica Regan,Jeff L. Rosenheim,Femke Speelberg,Adrienne Spinozzi,Perrin Stein,Courtney A. Stewart,E. Bradley Strauchen-Scherer,Karen Van Godtsenhoven,Sheena Wagstaff,Sylvia Yount
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recent Acquisitions A Selection 2018 20 Part II Late Eighteenth Century to Contemporary Book Excerpt:

The second volume in a special two-part edition of Recent Acquisitions, this Bulletin celebrates works acquired by the Museum in 2019 and 2020, many of which were gifts bestowed in honor of the Museum’s 150th anniversary year. Highlights of this volume include Jean-Baptise Carpeaux’s astonishing portrayal of an African woman in the marble sculpture Why Born Enslaved!, a monumental storage jar by African American potter and poet David Drake, an exquisite lacquer mirror case depicting an 1838 meeting between the crown prince of Iran and the tsar of Russia, and Carmen Herrera’s abstract work dating to 1949, Iberic. This publication also honors the many generous contributions from donors that make possible the continued growth of The Met's collection.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications 2022

The Metropolitan Museum of Art  Publications 2022
Author: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 32
Release: 2021-12-31
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications 2022 Book Excerpt:

This catalogue, published annually by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, announces the Museum's publications for that year. It also features notable backlist titles and provide a complete list of books available in print at the time of publication.

The Museum

The Museum
Author: Owen Hopkins
Publsiher: Frances Lincoln
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2021-10-12
ISBN: 0711254575
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Museum Book Excerpt:

Visited by millions around the world every year, discover the untold story of the history of the institution of the museum, one of mankind’s most essential creations. Using examples of the greatest cultural institutions to shape the narrative, this book outlines the history of the museum movement, tracking the evolution from princely collections in Europe and the Enlightenment’s classically inspired temples of curiosities, via the public museums of the late nineteenth century, on to today’s global era oficonic buildings designed by the world’s leading architects. Over the course of five chapters filled with stunning imagery that highlights the beauty of these venerated buildings, the origins of key institutions are revealed, including: Louvre Metropolitan Museum of Art British Museum Tate Modern Hermitage Guggenheim Smithsonian Institute Acropolis Museum Also outlined are the motivations of the architects, curators and patrons who have shaped how we experience the modern museum, a cast that includes names such as King George II, Napoleon, Henry Clay Frick, Peggy Guggenheim, Andrew Carnegie, Alfred Barr, Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Frank Gehry, Richard Rogers, Nicholas Serota and Zaha Hadid. By examining how these venues became intrinsic to our shared cultural experience, analysing the changing roles they play in society and questioning what the future holds in a digital age, this book is for anyone who has stood in awe at the spectacle of a museum.

Rhapsodic Objects

Rhapsodic Objects
Author: Yaelle Biro,Noemie Etienne
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 236
Release: 2021-12-20
ISBN: 3110757664
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rhapsodic Objects Book Excerpt:

Zirkulation und Nachahmung haben einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Gestaltung der materiellen Welt. Die Beiträge des Bandes untersuchen, wie technisches Wissen, immaterielle Wünsche und politische Agenden die Produktion und Rezeption der visuellen und materiellen Kultur im Wandel der Zeit und Orte prägten. Sie gehen den Wanderungen von Kulturgütern unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Entstehungskontexte nach. Mit dem Begriff des „rhapsodischen Objektes" werden dabei die vielschichtigen, nicht immer in einem Zusammenhang stehenden Erzählungen der Objekte angesprochen.