The Ontology of Spacetime

The Ontology of Spacetime
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2006-07-10
ISBN: 9780080461885
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Ontology of Spacetime Book Excerpt:

This book contains selected papers from the First International Conference on the Ontology of Spacetime. Its fourteen chapters address two main questions: first, what is the current status of the substantivalism/relationalism debate, and second, what about the prospects of presentism and becoming within present-day physics and its philosophy? The overall tenor of the four chapters of the book’s first part is that the prospects of spacetime substantivalism are bleak, although different possible positions remain with respect to the ontological status of spacetime. Part II and Part III of the book are devoted to presentism, eternalism, and becoming, from two different perspectives. In the six chapters of Part II it is argued, in different ways, that relativity theory does not have essential consequences for these issues. It certainly is true that the structure of time is different, according to relativity theory, from the one in classical theory. But that does not mean that a decision is forced between presentism and eternalism, or that becoming has proved to be an impossible concept. It may even be asked whether presentism and eternalism really offer different ontological perspectives at all. The writers of the last four chapters, in Part III, disagree. They argue that relativity theory is incompatible with becoming and presentism. Several of them come up with proposals to go beyond relativity, in order to restore the prospects of presentism. · Space and time in present-day physics and philosophy · Introduction from scratch of the debates surrounding time · Broad spectrum of approaches, coherently represented

The Ontology of Spacetime II

The Ontology of Spacetime II
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 357
Release: 2008-06-17
ISBN: 9780080569888
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Ontology of Spacetime II Book Excerpt:

The sixteen papers collected in this volume are expanded and revised versions of talks delivered at the Second International Conference on the Ontology of Spacetime, organized by the International Society for the Advanced Study of Spacetime (John Earman, President) at Concordia University (Montreal) from 9 to 11 June 2006. Most chapters are devoted to subjects directly relating to the ontology of spacetime. The book starts with four papers that discuss the ontological status of spacetime and the processes occurring in it from a point of view that is first of all conceptual and philosophical. The focus then slightly shifts in the five papers that follow, to considerations more directly involving technical considerations from relativity theory. After this, Time, Becoming and Change take centre stage in the next five papers. The book ends with two excursions into relatively uncharted territory: a consideration of the status of Kaluza-Klein theory, and an investigation of possible relations between the nature of spacetime and condensed matter physics, respectively. Space and time in present-day physics and philosophy Relatively low level of technicality, easily accessible Introduction from scratch of the debates surrounding time Broad spectrum of approaches, coherently represented

Philosophy and Foundations of Physics

Philosophy and Foundations of Physics
Author: Dennis Geert Bernardus Johan Dieks
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2008
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Ontology
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy and Foundations of Physics Book Excerpt:

Relativity and the Nature of Spacetime

Relativity and the Nature of Spacetime
Author: Vesselin Petkov
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2009-06-23
ISBN: 3642019625
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Relativity and the Nature of Spacetime Book Excerpt:

Puts the emphasis on conceptual questions: Why is there no such thing as absolute motion? What is the physical meaning of relativity of simultaneity? But, the most important question that is addressed in this book is "what is the nature of spacetime?" or, equivalently, "what is the dimensionality of the world at the macroscopic level?" Develops answers to these questions via a thorough analysis of relativistic effects and explicitly asking whether the objects involved in those effects are three-dimensional or four-dimensional. Discusses the implication of the result (this analysis clearly shows that if the world and the physical objects were three-dimensional, none of the kinematic relativistic effects and the experimental evidence supporting them would be possible) for physics, philosophy, and our entire world view are discussed.

The Routledge Handbook of Modality

The Routledge Handbook of Modality
Author: Otávio Bueno,Scott A. Shalkowski
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2020-12-30
ISBN: 1317585283
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Routledge Handbook of Modality Book Excerpt:

Modality - the question of what is possible and what is necessary - is a fundamental area of philosophy and philosophical research. The Routledge Handbook of Modality is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising thirty-five chapters by a team of international contributors the Handbook is divided into seven clear parts: worlds and modality essentialism, ontological dependence, and modality modal anti-realism epistemology of modality modality in science modality in logic and mathematics modality in the history of philosophy. Within these sections the central issues, debates and problems are examined, including possible worlds, essentialism, counterfactuals, ontological dependence, modal fictionalism, deflationism, the integration challenge, conceivability, a priori knowledge, laws of nature, natural kinds, and logical necessity. The Routledge Handbook of Modality is essential reading for students and researchers in epistemology, metaphysics and philosophy of language. It will also be very useful for those in related fields in philosophy such as philosophy of mathematics, logic and philosophy of science.

On the Elements of Ontology

On the Elements of Ontology
Author: D. W. Mertz
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2016-02-12
ISBN: 3110454513
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

On the Elements of Ontology Book Excerpt:

Central to Elements is an assay of the attributional union properties and relations have with their subjects, a topic historically left metaphorical. The work critiques eight Aristotelian assumptions concerning attribute dependence and ‘inherence’, per se subjects (‘substances’), attributes as agent-organizers, and unity-by-a-shared-one. Groups of these assumptions are seen to yield contradiction, vicious regress, or other problems. This analysis, joined with insights from an assay of ubiquitous structure, motivate ten theses explicating attribution and its primary ontic status. The theses detail: attributes proper as individuated instances, structure as instance-generated facts and their two forms of composition, the conditioning role and universal nature of instances’ component intensions, the primacy of attribute instances for generating all forms of composition and complex entities, and identity and indiscernibility criteria for the latter. Principal is the insight that attribution is intension-determined combinatorial agency. It is its systematizing implications that provide solutions to classic problems, e.g., Composition, Individuation, and Universals, and in net generate a comprehensive one-category structuralist ontology.

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity Scientific Rationality

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity   Scientific Rationality
Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publsiher: MultiMedia Publishing
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2022
ISBN: 6060333214
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epistemology of Experimental Gravity Scientific Rationality Book Excerpt:

The evolution of gravitational tests from an epistemological perspective framed in the concept of rational reconstruction of Imre Lakatos, based on his methodology of research programmes. Unlike other works on the same subject, the evaluated period is very extensive, starting with Newton's natural philosophy and up to the quantum gravity theories of today. In order to explain in a more rational way the complex evolution of the gravity concept of the last century, I propose a natural extension of the methodology of the research programmes of Lakatos that I then use during the paper. I believe that this approach offers a new perspective on how evolved over time the concept of gravity and the methods of testing each theory of gravity, through observations and experiments. I argue, based on the methodology of the research programmes and the studies of scientists and philosophers, that the current theories of quantum gravity are degenerative, due to the lack of experimental evidence over a long period of time and of self-immunization against the possibility of falsification. Moreover, a methodological current is being developed that assigns a secondary, unimportant role to verification through observations and/or experiments. For this reason, it will not be possible to have a complete theory of quantum gravity in its current form, which to include to the limit the general relativity, since physical theories have always been adjusted, during their evolution, based on observational or experimental tests, and verified by the predictions made. Also, contrary to a widespread opinion and current active programs regarding the unification of all the fundamental forces of physics in a single final theory, based on string theory, I argue that this unification is generally unlikely, and it is not possible anyway for a unification to be developed based on current theories of quantum gravity, including string theory. In addition, I support the views of some scientists and philosophers that currently too much resources are being consumed on the idea of developing quantum gravity theories, and in particular string theory, to include general relativity and to unify gravity with other forces, as long as science does not impose such research programs. CONTENTS: Introduction Gravity Gravitational tests Methodology of Lakatos - Scientific rationality The natural extension of the Lakatos methodology Bifurcated programs Unifying programs 1. Newtonian gravity 1.1 Heuristics of Newtonian gravity 1.2 Proliferation of post-Newtonian theories 1.3 Tests of post-Newtonian theories 1.3.1 Newton's proposed tests 1.3.2 Tests of post-Newtonian theories 1.4 Newtonian gravity anomalies 1.5 Saturation point in Newtonian gravity 2. General relativity 2.1 Heuristics of the general relativity 2.2 Proliferation of post-Einsteinian gravitational theories 2.3 Post-Newtonian parameterized formalism (PPN) 2.4 Tests of general relativity and post-Einsteinian theories 2.4.1 Tests proposed by Einstein 2.4.2 Tests of post-Einsteinian theories 2.4.3 Classic tests 2.4.3.1 Precision of Mercury's perihelion 2.4.3.2 Light deflection 2.4.3.3 Gravitational redshift 2.4.4 Modern tests 2.4.4.1 Shapiro Delay 2.4.4.2 Gravitational dilation of time 2.4.4.3 Frame dragging and geodetic effect 2.4.4.4 Testing of the principle of equivalence 2.4.4.5 Solar system tests 2.4.5 Strong field gravitational tests 2.4.5.1 Gravitational lenses 2.4.5.2 Gravitational waves 2.4.5.3 Synchronization binary pulsars 2.4.5.4 Extreme environments 2.4.6 Cosmological tests 2.4.6.1 The expanding universe 2.4.6.2 Cosmological observations 2.4.6.3 Monitoring of weak gravitational lenses 2.5 Anomalies of general relativity 2.6 The saturation point of general relativity 3. Quantum gravity 3.1 Heuristics of quantum gravity 3.2 The tests of quantum gravity 3.3 Canonical quantum gravity 3.3.1 Tests proposed for the CQG 3.3.2. Loop quantum gravity 3.4 String theory 3.4.1 Heuristics of string theory 3.4.2. Anomalies of string theory 3.5 Other theories of quantum gravity 3.6 Unification (The Final Theory) 4. Cosmology Conclusions Notes Bibliography DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35350.70724

Objective Becoming

Objective Becoming
Author: Bradford Skow
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 249
Release: 2015
ISBN: 0198713274
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Objective Becoming Book Excerpt:

Examines theories of time that are based on metaphor, especially the moving spotlight theory which holds that "presentness" moves along the series of times from the past into the future, and proposes ways in which the moving spotlight theory may be made compatible with the theory of relativity.

What is Fundamental

What is Fundamental
Author: Anthony Aguirre,Brendan Foster,Zeeya Merali
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 187
Release: 2019-03-21
ISBN: 3030113019
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

What is Fundamental Book Excerpt:

Are there truly fundamental entities in nature? Or are the things that we regard as fundamental in our theories – for example space, time or the masses of elementary particles – merely awaiting a derivation from a new, yet to be discovered theory based on elements that are more fundamental? This was the central question posed in the 2018 FQXi essay competition, which drew more than 200 entries from professional physicists, philosophers, and other scholars. This volume presents enhanced versions of the fifteen award-winning essays, giving a spectrum of views and insights on this fascinating topic. From a prescription for “when to stop digging” to the case for strong emergence, the reader will find here a plethora of stimulating and challenging ideas - presented in a largely non-technical manner - on which to sharpen their understanding of the language of physics and even the nature of reality.

Physics of the Human Temporality

Physics of the Human Temporality
Author: Ihor Lubashevsky,Natalie Plavinska
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 641
Release: 2021-11-22
ISBN: 3030826120
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physics of the Human Temporality Book Excerpt:

This book presents a novel account of the human temporal dimension called the “human temporality” and develops a special mathematical formalism for describing such an object as the human mind. One of the characteristic features of the human mind is its temporal extent. For objects of physical reality, only the present exists, which may be conceived as a point-like moment in time. In the human temporality, the past retained in the memory, the imaginary future, and the present coexist and are closely intertwined and impact one another. This book focuses on one of the fragments of the human temporality called the complex present. A detailed analysis of the classical and modern concepts has enabled the authors to put forward the idea of the multi-component structure of the present. For the concept of the complex present, the authors proposed a novel account that involves a qualitative description and a special mathematical formalism. This formalism takes into account human goal-oriented behavior and uncertainty in human perception. The present book can be interesting for theoreticians, physicists dealing with modeling systems where the human factor plays a crucial role, philosophers who are interested in applying philosophical concepts to constructing mathematical models, and psychologists whose research is related to modeling mental processes.

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics
Author: Eleanor Knox,Alastair Wilson
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 786
Release: 2021-09-28
ISBN: 131722714X
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics Book Excerpt:

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Physics is a comprehensive and authoritative guide to the state of the art in the philosophy of physics. It comprisess 54 self-contained chapters written by leading philosophers of physics at both senior and junior levels, making it the most thorough and detailed volume of its type on the market – nearly every major perspective in the field is represented. The Companion’s 54 chapters are organized into 12 parts. The first seven parts cover all of the major physical theories investigated by philosophers of physics today, and the last five explore key themes that unite the study of these theories. I. Newtonian Mechanics II. Special Relativity III. General Relativity IV. Non-Relativistic Quantum Theory V. Quantum Field Theory VI. Quantum Gravity VII. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics VIII. Explanation IX. Intertheoretic Relations X. Symmetries XI. Metaphysics XII. Cosmology The difficulty level of the chapters has been carefully pitched so as to offer both accessible summaries for those new to philosophy of physics and standard reference points for active researchers on the front lines. An introductory chapter by the editors maps out the field, and each part also begins with a short summary that places the individual chapters in context. The volume will be indispensable to any serious student or scholar of philosophy of physics.

Philosophical Essays

Philosophical Essays
Author: Nicolae Sfetcu
Publsiher: MultiMedia Publishing
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN: 6060334741
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophical Essays Book Excerpt:

A collection of personal essays in philosophy of science (physics, especially gravity), philosophy of information and communication technology, current social issues (emotional intelligence, COVID-19 pandemic, eugenics, intelligence), philosophy of art, and logic and philosophy of language. The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper Imre Lakatos - Heuristics and methodological tolerance Isaac Newton on the action at a distance in gravity: With or without God? Causal Loops in Time Travel The singularities as ontological limits of the general relativity Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies Big Data Ethics in Research Emotions and Emotional Intelligence in Organizations COVID-19 Pandemic - Philosophical Approaches Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky - Psychological and philosophical aspects Causal theories of reference for proper names CONTENTS: The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 The demarcation problem - - - 2 Pseudoscience - - - 3 Falsifiability - - - 4 Falsification and refutation - - - 5 Extension of falsifiability - - - 6 Criticism of falsifiability - - - 7 Support of falsifiability - - - 8 The current trend - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Imre Lakatos - Heuristics and methodological tolerance - - - Rational reconstruction of science through research programmes - - - Dogmatic Falsificationism - - - Justificationism - - - Bibliography Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Robert Hooke's contribution to the law of universal gravitation - - - Isaac Newton's contribution to the law of universal gravitation - - - Robert Hooke's claim of his priority on the law of universal gravitation - - - Newton's defense - - - The controversy in the opinion of other contemporary scientists - - - What the supporters of Isaac Newton say - - - What the supporters of Robert Hooke say - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Isaac Newton on the action at a distance in gravity: With or without God? - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Principia - - - Correspondence with Richard Bentley - - - Queries in Opticks - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Causal Loops in Time Travel - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - History of the concept of time travel - - - Grandfather paradox - - - The philosophy of time travel - - - Causal loops - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes The singularities as ontological limits of the general relativity - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - - - - Classical Theory and Special Relativity - - - - - - General Relativity (GR) - - - 1 Ontology of General Relativity - - - 2 Singularities - - - - - - Black Holes - - - - - - - - - Event Horizon - - - - - - Big Bang - - - - - - Are there Singularities? - - - 3 Ontology of Singularities - - - - - - Ontology of black holes - - - - - - The hole argument - - - - - - There are no singularities - - - Conclusions - - - Notes - - - Bibliography Epistemology of Experimental Gravity - Scientific Rationality - - - Introduction - - - - - - Gravity - - - - - - Gravitational tests - - - - - - Methodology of Lakatos - Scientific rationality - - - - - - The natural extension of the Lakatos methodology - - - - - - - - - Bifurcated programs - - - - - - - - - Unifying programs - - - 1. Newtonian gravity - - - - - - 1.1 Heuristics of Newtonian gravity - - - - - - 1.2 Proliferation of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - 1.3 Tests of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - - - - 1.3.1 Newton's proposed tests - - - - - - - - - 1.3.2 Tests of post-Newtonian theories - - - - - - 1.4 Newtonian gravity anomalies - - - - - - 1.5 Saturation point in Newtonian gravity - - - 2. General relativity - - - - - - 2.1 Heuristics of the general relativity - - - - - - 2.2 Proliferation of post-Einsteinian gravitational theories - - - - - - 2.3 Post-Newtonian parameterized formalism (PPN) - - - - - - 2.4 Tests of general relativity and post-Einsteinian theories - - - - - - - - - 2.4.1 Tests proposed by Einstein - - - - - - - - - 2.4.2 Tests of post-Einsteinian theories - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3 Classic tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.1 Precision of Mercury's perihelion - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.2 Light deflection - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.3.3 Gravitational redshift - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4 Modern tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.1 Shapiro Delay - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.2 Gravitational dilation of time - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.3 Frame dragging and geodetic effect - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.4 Testing of the principle of equivalence - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.4.5 Solar system tests - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5 Strong field gravitational tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.1 Gravitational lenses - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.2 Gravitational waves - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.3 Synchronization binary pulsars - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.5.4 Extreme environments - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6 Cosmological tests - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.1 The expanding universe - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.2 Cosmological observations - - - - - - - - - - - - 2.4.6.3 Monitoring of weak gravitational lenses - - - - - - 2.5 Anomalies of general relativity - - - - - - 2.6 The saturation point of general relativity - - - 3. Quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.1 Heuristics of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.2 The tests of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.3 Canonical quantum gravity - - - - - - - - - 3.3.1 Tests proposed for the CQG - - - - - - - - - 3.3.2. Loop quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.4 String theory - - - - - - - - - 3.4.1 Heuristics of string theory - - - - - - - - - 3.4.2. Anomalies of string theory - - - - - - 3.5 Other theories of quantum gravity - - - - - - 3.6 Unification (The Final Theory) - - - 4. Cosmology - - - Conclusions - - - Notes - - - Bibliography Philosophy of Blockchain Technology - Ontologies - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - Blockchain Technology - - - - - - Design - - - - - - Models - - - Bitcoin - - - Philosophy - - - Ontologies - - - - - - Narrative ontologies - - - - - - Enterprise ontologies - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Big Data Ethics in Research - - - Abstract - - - 1. Introduction - - - - - - 1.1 Definitions - - - - - - 1.2 Big Data dimensions - - - 2. Technology - - - - - - 2.1 Applications - - - - - - - - - 2.1.1 In research - - - 3. Philosophical aspects - - - 4. Legal aspects - - - - - - 4.1 GDPR - - - - - - - - - Stages of processing of personal data - - - - - - - - - Principles of data processing - - - - - - - - - Privacy policy and transparency - - - - - - - - - Purposes of data processing - - - - - - - - - Design and implicit confidentiality - - - - - - - - - The (legal) paradox of Big Data - - - 5. Ethical issues - - - - - - Ethics in research - - - - - - Awareness - - - - - - Consent - - - - - - Control - - - - - - Transparency - - - - - - Trust - - - - - - Ownership - - - - - - Surveillance and security - - - - - - Digital identity - - - - - - Tailored reality - - - - - - De-identification - - - - - - Digital inequality - - - - - - Privacy - - - 6. Big Data research - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Emotions and Emotional Intelligence in Organizations - - - Abstract - - - 1. Emotions - - - - - - 1.1 Models of emotion - - - - - - 1.2 Processing emotions - - - - - - 1.3 Happiness - - - - - - 1.4 The philosophy of emotions - - - - - - 1.5 The ethics of emotions - - - 2. Emotional intelligence - - - - - - 2.1 Models of emotional intelligence - - - - - - - - - 2.1.1 Model of abilities of Mayer and Salovey - - - - - - - - - 2.1.2 Goleman's mixed model - - - - - - - - - 2.1.3 The mixed model of Bar-On - - - - - - - - - 2.1.4 Petrides' model of traits - - - - - - 2.2 Emotional intelligence in research and education - - - - - - 2.3 The philosophy of emotional intelligence - - - - - - - - - 2.3.1 Emotional intelligence in Eastern philosophy - - - 3. Emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.1 Emotional labor - - - - - - 3.2 The philosophy of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.3 Critique of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - 3.4 Ethics of emotional intelligence in organizations - - - - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography COVID-19 Pandemic - Philosophical Approaches - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 Viruses - - - - - - 1.1 Ontology - - - 2 Pandemics - - - - - - 2.1 Social dimensions - - - - - - 2.2 Ethics - - - 3 COVID-19 - - - - - - 3.1 Biopolitics - - - - - - 3.2 Neocommunism - - - - - - 3.3 Desocialising - - - 4 Forecasting - - - Bibliography Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - New Eugenics - - - The Future of Eugenics - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies - - - Abstract - - - 1 Introduction - - - - - - 1.1. History - - - 2. Intelligence activity - - - - - - 2.1. Organizations - - - - - - 2.2. Intelligence cycle - - - - - - 2.3 Intelligence gathering - - - - - - 2.4. Intelligence analysis - - - - - - 2.5. Counterintelligence - - - - - - 2.6. Epistemic communities - - - 3. Ontology - - - 4. Epistemology - - - - - - 4.1. The tacit knowledge (Polanyi) - - - 5. Methodologies - - - 6. Analogies with other disciplines - - - - - - 6.1. Science - - - - - - 6.2. Archeology - - - - - - 6.3. Business - - - - - - 6.4. Medicine - - - 7. Conclusions - - - Bibliography Solaris, directed by Andrei Tarkovsky - Psychological and philosophical aspects - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1 Cinema technique - - - 2 Psychological Aspects - - - 3 Philosophical aspects - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliography - - - Notes Causal theories of reference for proper names - - - Abstract - - - Introduction - - - 1. The causal theory of reference - - - 2. Saul Kripke - - - 3. Gareth Evans - - - 4. Michael Devitt - - - 5. Blockchain and the causal tree of reference - - - Conclusions - - - Bibliografie About the author - - - Nicolae Sfetcu - - - - - - Contact Publishing House - - - MultiMedia Publishing

Dispositionalism and the Metaphysics of Science

Dispositionalism and the Metaphysics of Science
Author: Travis Dumsday
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-01-24
ISBN: 1108569986
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dispositionalism and the Metaphysics of Science Book Excerpt:

Dispositionalism is the view that causal powers are among the irreducible properties of nature. It has long been among the core competing positions in the metaphysics of laws, but its potential implications for other key debates within metaphysics and the philosophy of science have remained under-explored. Travis Dumsday fills this major gap in the literature by establishing new connections between dispositionalism and such topics as substance ontology, ontic structural realism, material composition, emergentism, natural-kind essentialism, perdurantism, time travel, and spacetime substantivalism. He also puts forward a novel view concerning the precise relationship between causal powers and the fundamental laws of nature. His rich and accessible study will appeal to readers interested in contemporary analytic metaphysics and philosophy of science.

Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories

Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories
Author: Dennis Lehmkuhl,Gregor Schiemann,Erhard Scholz
Publsiher: Birkhäuser
Total Pages: 335
Release: 2017-01-05
ISBN: 1493932101
Category: Mathematics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Towards a Theory of Spacetime Theories Book Excerpt:

This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spacetime theories.” This work will be of interest to physicists, as well as philosophers and historians of science working with or interested in General Relativity and/or Space, Time and Gravitation more generally.

Contemporary Materialism Its Ontology and Epistemology

Contemporary Materialism  Its Ontology and Epistemology
Author: Gustavo E. Romero,Javier Pérez-Jara,Lino Camprubí
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 378
Release: 2022-06-01
ISBN: 3030894886
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Contemporary Materialism Its Ontology and Epistemology Book Excerpt:

This book provides an up-to-date revision of materialism’s central tenets, its main varieties, and the place of materialistic philosophy vis a vis scientific knowledge. Materialism has been the subject of extensive and rich controversies since Robert Boyle introduced the term for the first time in the 17th century. But what is materialism and what can it offer today? The term is usually defined as the worldview according to which everything real is material. Nevertheless, there is no philosophical consensus about whether the meaning of matter can be enlarged beyond the physical. As a consequence, materialism is often defined in stark exclusive and reductionist terms: whatever exists is either physical or ontologically reducible to it. This conception, if consistent, mutilates reality, excluding the ontological significance of political, economic, sociocultural, anthropological and psychological realities. Starting from a new history of materialism, the present book focuses on the central ontological and epistemological debates aroused by today’s leading materialist approaches, including some little known to an anglophone readership. The key concepts of matter, system, emergence, space and time, life, mind, and software are checked over and updated. Controversial issues such as the nature of mathematics and the place of reductionism are also discussed from different materialist approaches. As a result, materialism emerges as a powerful, indispensable scientifically-supported worldview with a surprising wealth of nuances and possibilities.

Progress in Physics vol 2 2005

Progress in Physics  vol  2 2005
Author: Dmitri Rabounski ,Florentin Smarandache, Larissa Borissova
Publsiher: Infinite Study
Total Pages: 118
Release: 2022
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Progress in Physics vol 2 2005 Book Excerpt:

Progress in Physics has been created for publications on advanced studies in theoretical and experimental physics, including related themes from mathematics.

The Routledge Handbook of Idealism and Immaterialism

The Routledge Handbook of Idealism and Immaterialism
Author: Joshua Farris,Benedikt Paul Göcke
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 698
Release: 2021-09-13
ISBN: 100043334X
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Routledge Handbook of Idealism and Immaterialism Book Excerpt:

The influence of materialist ontology largely dominates philosophical and scientific discussions. However, there is a resurgent interest in alternative ontologies from panpsychism (the view that at the base of reality exists potential minds, minds, or mind-lets) to idealism and dualism (the view that all of reality is material and mental). The Routledge Handbook of Idealism and Immaterialism is an outstanding reference source and the first major collection of its kind. Historically grounded and constructively motivated, it covers the key topics in philosophy, science, and theology, providing students and scholars with a comprehensive introduction to idealism and immaterialism. Also addressed are post-materialism developments, with explicit attention to variations of idealism and immaterialism (the view that reality depends on a mind or a set of minds). Comprising 44 chapters written by an international and interdisciplinary team of contributors, the Handbook is organised into five clear parts: Idealism and the history of philosophy Important figures in idealism Systematic assessment of idealism Idealism and science Idealism, physicalism, panpsychism, and substance dualism Essential reading for students and researchers in metaphysics, philosophy of science, philosophy of religion, and philosophy of mind, The Routledge Handbook of Idealism and Immaterialism will also be of interest to those in related discplines where idealist and immaterialist ontology impinge on history, science, and theology.

Quantum Mechanics Between Ontology and Epistemology

Quantum Mechanics Between Ontology and Epistemology
Author: Florian J. Boge
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2018-10-24
ISBN: 3319957651
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Quantum Mechanics Between Ontology and Epistemology Book Excerpt:

This book explores the prospects of rivaling ontological and epistemic interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM). It concludes with a suggestion for how to interpret QM from an epistemological point of view and with a Kantian touch. It thus refines, extends, and combines existing approaches in a similar direction. The author first looks at current, hotly debated ontological interpretations. These include hidden variables-approaches, Bohmian mechanics, collapse interpretations, and the many worlds interpretation. He demonstrates why none of these ontological interpretations can claim to be the clear winner amongst its rivals. Next, coverage explores the possibility of interpreting QM in terms of knowledge but without the assumption of hidden variables. It examines QBism as well as Healey’s pragmatist view. The author finds both interpretations or programs appealing, but still wanting in certain respects. As a result, he then goes on to advance a genuine proposal as to how to interpret QM from the perspective of an internal realism in the sense of Putnam and Kant. The book also includes two philosophical interludes. One details the notions of probability and realism. The other highlights the connections between the notions of locality, causality, and reality in the context of violations of Bell-type inequalities.

Structural Realism

Structural Realism
Author: Elaine Landry,Dean Rickles
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2012-01-05
ISBN: 9400725787
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Structural Realism Book Excerpt:

Structural realism has rapidly gained in popularity in recent years, but it has splintered into many distinct denominations, often underpinned by diverse motivations. There is, no monolithic position known as ‘structural realism,’ but there is a general convergence on the idea that a central role is to be played by relational aspects over object-based aspects of ontology. What becomes of causality in a world without fundamental objects? In this book, the foremost authorities on structural realism attempt to answer this and related questions: ‘what is structure?’ and ‘what is an object?’ Also featured are the most recent advances in structural realism, including the intersection of mathematical structuralism and structural realism, and the latest treatments of laws and modality in the context of structural realism. The book will be of interest to philosophers of science, philosophers of physics, metaphysicians, and those interested in foundational aspects of science.

The Philosophy of Quantum Physics

The Philosophy of Quantum Physics
Author: Cord Friebe,Meinard Kuhlmann,Holger Lyre,Paul M. Näger,Oliver Passon,Manfred Stöckler
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 291
Release: 2018-06-21
ISBN: 3319783564
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Philosophy of Quantum Physics Book Excerpt:

This book provides a thorough and up-to-date introduction to the philosophy of quantum physics. Although quantum theory is renowned for its spectacular empirical successes, controversial discussion about how it should be understood continue to rage today. In this volume, the authors provide an overview of its numerous philosophical challenges: Do quantum objects violate the principle of causality? Are particles of the same type indistinguishable and therefore not individual entities? Do quantum objects retain their identity over time? How does a compound quantum system relate to its parts? These questions are answered here within different interpretational approaches to quantum theory. Finally, moving to Quantum Field Theory, we find that the problem of non-locality is exacerbated. Philosophy of quantum physics is aimed at philosophers with an interest in physics, while also serving to familiarize physicists with many of the essential philosophical questions of their subject.