The Organic Chemistry Of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions

Author by : Richard B. Silverman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
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Description : The Organic Chemistry of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions is not a book on enzymes, but rather a book on the general mechanisms involved in chemical reactions involving enzymes. An enzyme is a protein molecule in a plant or animal that causes specific reactions without itself being permanently altered or destroyed. This is a revised edition of a very successful book, which appeals to both academic and industrial markets. Illustrates the organic mechanism associated with each enzyme-catalyzed reaction Makes the connection between organic reaction mechanisms and enzyme mechanisms Compiles the latest information about molecular mechanisms of enzyme reactions Accompanied by clearly drawn structures, schemes, and figures Includes an extensive bibliography on enzyme mechanisms covering the last 30 years Explains how enzymes can accelerate the rates of chemical reactions with high specificity Provides approaches to the design of inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed reactions Categorizes the cofactors that are appropriate for catalyzing different classes of reactions Shows how chemical enzyme models are used for mechanistic studies Describes catalytic antibody design and mechanism Includes problem sets and solutions for each chapter Written in an informal and didactic style


Organic Chemistry Of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions Revised Edition

Author by : Richard B. Silverman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
Total Download : 572
File Size : 44,7 Mb
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Description : The Organic Chemistry of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions is not a book on enzymes, but rather a book on the general mechanisms involved in chemical reactions involving enzymes. An enzyme is a protein molecule in a plant or animal that causes specific reactions without itself being permanently altered or destroyed. This is a revised edition of a very successful book, which appeals to both academic and industrial markets. Illustrates the organic mechanism associated with each enzyme-catalyzed reaction Makes the connection between organic reaction mechanisms and enzyme mechanisms Compiles the latest information about molecular mechanisms of enzyme reactions Accompanied by clearly drawn structures, schemes, and figures Includes an extensive bibliography on enzyme mechanisms covering the last 30 years Explains how enzymes can accelerate the rates of chemical reactions with high specificity Provides approaches to the design of inhibitors of enzyme-catalyzed reactions Categorizes the cofactors that are appropriate for catalyzing different classes of reactions Shows how chemical enzyme models are used for mechanistic studies Describes catalytic antibody design and mechanism Includes problem sets and solutions for each chapter Written in an informal and didactic style


Introduction To Enzyme And Coenzyme Chemistry

Author by : T. D. H. Bugg
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Total Read : 73
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Description : Enzymes are giant macromolecules which catalyse biochemical reactions. They are remarkable in many ways. Their three-dimensional structures are highly complex, yet they are formed by spontaneous folding of a linear polypeptide chain. Their catalytic properties are far more impressive than synthetic catalysts which operate under more extreme conditions. Each enzyme catalyses a single chemical reaction on a particular chemical substrate with very high enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity at rates which approach “catalytic perfection”. Living cells are capable of carrying out a huge repertoire of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, some of which have little or no precedent in organic chemistry. The popular textbook Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry has been thoroughly updated to include information on the most recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action, with additional recent examples from the literature used to illustrate key points. A major new feature is the inclusion of two-colour figures, and the addition of over 40 new figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text, in order to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function. This new edition provides a concise but comprehensive account from the perspective of organic chemistry, what enzymes are, how they work, and how they catalyse many of the major classes of enzymatic reactions, and will continue to prove invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio-organic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.


Multi Step Enzyme Catalysis

Author by : Eduardo Garcia-Junceda
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
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Description : The first comprehensive coverage of this unique and interdisciplinary field provides a complete overview, covering such topics as chemoenzymatic synthesis, microbial production of DNA building blocks, asymmetric transformations by coupled enzymes and much more. By combining enzymatic and synthetic organic steps, the use of multi-enzyme complexes and other techniques opens the door to reactions hitherto unknown, making this monograph of great interest to biochemists, organic chemists, and chemists working with/on organometallics, as well as catalytic chemists, biotechnologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries.


Structural And Functional Aspects Of Enzyme Catalysis

Author by : H. Eggerer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
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Description : Enzymes perform the executive role in growth, energy conversion, and repair of a living organism. Their activity is adjusted to their en vironment within the cell, being turned off, switched on, or finely tuned by specific metabolites according to demands at the physiologi cal level. Each enzyme discovered in the long history of enzymology has revealed its own individuality. Even closely related members of a family differ in specificity, stability or regulatory properties. Despite these, at first sight overwhelming aspects of individuality, common factors of enzymic reactions have been recognized. Enzymes are stereospecific catalysts even when a nonspecific process would yield the same product. Knowledge of the detailed stereochemistry of an enzymic reaction helps to deduce reaction mechanisms and to ob tain insight into the specific binding of substrates at the active site. This binding close to catalytically competent groups is related to the enormous speed of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The physical ba sis of rate-enhancement is understood in principle and further exploit ed in the design of small organic receptor molecules as model enzymes. These aspects of enzyme catalysis are discussed in Session 1. Session 2 emphasizes the dynamic aspects of enzyme substrate inter action. Substrate must diffuse from solution space to the enzyme's surface. This process is influenced and can be greatly facilitated by certain electrostatic propterties of enzymes. The dynamic events during catalysis are studied by relaxation kinetics or NMR techniques.


New Trends In Enzyme Catalysis And Biomimetic Chemical Reactions

Author by : Gertz I. Likhtenshtein
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 88
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Description : "This book is a view of enzyme catalysis by a physico-chemist with long-term experience in the investigation of structure and action mechanism of biological catalysts. This book is not intended to provide an exhaustive survey of each topic but rather a discussion of their theoretical and experimental background, and recent developments. The literature of enzyme catalysis is so vast and many scientists have made important contribution in the area, that it is impossible in the space allowed for this book to give a representative set of references. The author has tried to use reviews, and general principles of articles. He apologizes to those he has not been able to include. . [...] The monograph is intended for scientists working on enzyme catalysis and adjacent areas such as chemical modeling of biological processes, homogeneous catalysis, biomedical research and biotechnology. The book can be use as a subsidiary manual for instructors, graduate and undergraduate students of university biochemistry and chemistry departments."--Pages ix-x.


Enzymes In Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Author by : Wong
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 57
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Description : This book covers the most recent development of enzymatic organic synthesis, with particular focus on the use of isolated enzymes. It is organized into one introductory chapter dealing with the characteristics of enzymes as catalysts, and five chapters dealing with different types of chemical transformations. Methods for enzyme immobilization and stabilizaton, the use of enzymes in extreme environments, and the alteration of enzyme properties by chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis for synthetic purposes are covered.


Enzyme Catalysis In Organic Synthesis

Author by : Karlheinz Drauz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wiley-VCH
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 281
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Description : How to succeed with enzymes in organic synthesis Comprehensive in coverage, this handbook provides a thorough understanding of enzyme-catalyzed organic transformations. Using it, readers can easily apply the principles of enzyme catalysis to new chemical reactions. All techniques described are directly transferable to applications, from laboratory to industrial scale. Benefits for the user: * synthetic applications organized according to reaction type * tabular survey of all commercially available enzymes * two indexes offering easy access to enzymes, compounds, and reaction types * the latest synthetic methods, including use of catalytic antibodies and protein engineering


Enzyme Kinetics Catalysis And Control

Author by : Daniel L. Purich
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : Far more than a comprehensive treatise on initial-rate and fast-reaction kinetics, this one-of-a-kind desk reference places enzyme science in the fuller context of the organic, inorganic, and physical chemical processes occurring within enzyme active sites. Drawing on 2600 references, Enzyme Kinetics: Catalysis & Control develops all the kinetic tools needed to define enzyme catalysis, spanning the entire spectrum (from the basics of chemical kinetics and practical advice on rate measurement, to the very latest work on single-molecule kinetics and mechanoenzyme force generation), while also focusing on the persuasive power of kinetic isotope effects, the design of high-potency drugs, and the behavior of regulatory enzymes. Historical analysis of kinetic principles including advanced enzyme science Provides both theoretical and practical measurements tools Coverage of single molecular kinetics Examination of force generation mechanisms Discussion of organic and inorganic enzyme reactions


The Organic Chemistry Of Drug Design And Drug Action

Author by : Richard B. Silverman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
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Description : The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Third Edition, represents a unique approach to medicinal chemistry based on physical organic chemical principles and reaction mechanisms that rationalize drug action, which allows reader to extrapolate those core principles and mechanisms to many related classes of drug molecules. This new edition includes updates to all chapters, including new examples and references. It reflects significant changes in the process of drug design over the last decade and preserves the successful approach of the previous editions while including significant changes in format and coverage. This text is designed for undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry studying medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical chemistry; research chemists and biochemists working in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Updates to all chapters, including new examples and references Chapter 1 (Introduction): Completely rewritten and expanded as an overview of topics discussed in detail throughout the book Chapter 2 (Lead Discovery and Lead Modification): Sections on sources of compounds for screening including library collections, virtual screening, and computational methods, as well as hit-to-lead and scaffold hopping; expanded sections on sources of lead compounds, fragment-based lead discovery, and molecular graphics; and deemphasized solid-phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry Chapter 3 (Receptors): Drug-receptor interactions, cation-π and halogen bonding; atropisomers; case history of the insomnia drug suvorexant Chapter 4 (Enzymes): Expanded sections on enzyme catalysis in drug discovery and enzyme synthesis Chapter 5 (Enzyme Inhibition and Inactivation): New case histories: for competitive inhibition, the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib and Abelson kinase inhibitor, imatinib for transition state analogue inhibition, the purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors, forodesine and DADMe-ImmH, as well as the mechanism of the multisubstrate analog inhibitor isoniazid for slow, tight-binding inhibition, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin Chapter 7 (Drug Resistance and Drug Synergism): This new chapter includes topics taken from two chapters in the previous edition, with many new examples Chapter 8 (Drug Metabolism): Discussions of toxicophores and reactive metabolites Chapter 9 (Prodrugs and Drug Delivery Systems): Discussion of antibody–drug conjugates


Enzyme Kinetics And Mechanisms

Author by : Kenneth B. Taylor
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
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Description : Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanisms takes the reader through the experimental techniques and the logic by which the mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions can be elucidated by the results of steady-state kinetics and related experiments. It is meant to make these investigations both satisfying and effective. In distinction to other available descriptions, the descriptions in enzyme Kinetics and Mechanisms are limited to more commonly utilized and useful models and techniques. The logic relating the chemical models to the mathematical models and the logic of relating the mathematical models to data is presented in rather concise text, figures and equations. The development of mathematical models from chemical models is done by a unique algorithm that is both simple and quick, and the same concept are utilized to develop models for the effects of a variety of reaction conditions on the initial velocity. In addition, the various relationships of data, mathematical models and the chemical models is illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanisms is intended for research workers, graduate students, post doctoral associates, and faculty in biochemistry and molecular biology who are interested in the techniques and logic by which mechanisms of enzymes-catalyzed reactions can be elucidated by investigation of steady-state kinetic experiments.


Enzymes And Their Inhibitors

Author by : H. John Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 16
Total Download : 271
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Description : Focusing on the development of enzyme inhibitors as therapeutic drugs, Enzymes and Their Inhibitors: Drug Development provides a concise overview of the chemistry of major types of enzymes and their inhibitors. The opening chapters introduce readers to the structure, functions, mechanisms, and kinetics of enzymes, including their use as disease markers, analytical reagents, and in industrial processes. Subsequent chapters discuss the different types of enzyme inhibitors and the principles involved in developing them into effective drugs. This outstanding text, also valuable as a professional reference, will be useful to all students of pharmacology and medicinal chemistry.


Design And Synthesis Of Multifunctional Poly Ethylene Glycol S Using Enzymatic Catalysis For Multivalent Cancer Drug Delivery

Author by : Kwang Su Seo
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 68
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Description : The objective of this research was to design and synthesize multifunctional poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG)s using enzyme-catalyzed reactions for multivalent targeted drug delivery. This approach was intended to address the design and synthesis flaws of folate-targeted dendrimers developed by University of Michigan researchers. The cancer targeted nanodevice based on generation 5 poly(amidoamine) G5 PAMAM dendrimers conjugated to an average ~5 folic acid (FA) targeting ligands demonstrated an enhanced binding to KB tumor cells and targeted KB cells preferentially in in vitro and in vivo studies. However, the device showed two major flaws: structural defects in the PAMAM dendrimer and heterogeneous ligand distribution. Based on computer simulation for optimum folate binding, a four-arm PEG star topology with M[subscript n] = 1000 g/mol was proposed. First, a four-functional core based on tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was designed and synthesized using transesterification and Michael addition reactions in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst. The four-functional core (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2 core was successfully prepared by the CALB-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl acrylate (VA) with TEG and then Michael addition of diethanolamine to the resulting TEG diacrylate with/without the use of solvent. The functional PEG arms with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and folic acid (FA) were prepared using both traditional organic chemistry and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. FITC was reacted with the amine group of H2N-PEG-OH in the presence of triethylamine via nucleophilic addition onto the isothiocyanate group. Then, divinyl adipate (DVA) was transesterified with the FITC-PEG-OH product in the presence of CALB to produce the FITC-PEG vinyl ester that will be attached to the four-functional core via CALC-catalyzed transesterification. For the synthesis of FA-PEG vinyl ester arm, DVA was first reacted with PEG-monobenzyl ether (BzPEG-OH) in bulk in the presence of CALB. The BzPEG vinyl ester was then transesterified with 12-bromo-1-dodecanol in the presence of CALB. Finally, BzPEG-Br was attached to FA exclusively in the gamma position using a new method. The thesis also discusses fundamental studies that were carried out in order to get better understanding of enzyme catalyzed transesterification and Michael addition reactions. First, in an effort to investigate the effects of reagent and enzyme concentrations in transesterification, vinyl methacrylate (VMA) was reacted with 2-(hydroxyethyl) acrylate (2HEA) in the presence of CALB. When the reaction was performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a 2HEA concentration of 0.10 mol/L, only 19% conversion was observed within 4 hours, whereas complete conversion was achieved under solventless conditions. The effect of enzyme concentration in reactions with and without solvent was also studied. Quantitative conversion was achieved within 4 hours with [CALB] =2.0 x 10-4 mol/L in bulk, with no further rate increase with increased enzyme concentration. CALB showed high chemoselectivity in the reaction of DVA with 11-mercapto-1-undecanol in THF. DVA reacted only with the hydroxyl group of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol while the thiol group remained intact. The regioselectivity was also studied by the CALB-catalyzed Michael addition of diethylamine to [alpha]-acrylate-[omega]-methacrylate and [alpha]-acrylate-[omega]-crotonate ethylene glycol which were prepared by the transesterification of VA, VMA and vinyl crotonate with 2HEA, respectively, under solventless conditions. Diethylamine exclusively reacted with the acrylate group of both compounds. The Michael addition of diethanolamine to TEG dimethacrylate only gave 12.1% conversion within 24 hours and no further progress was observed after 24 hours. In contrast, TEG diacrylate reacted completely with diethanolamine within 2 hours. The effect of DVA concentration on the CALB-catalyzed transesterification with TEG was studied under solventless conditions. When 1.5 molar equivalent of DVA per OH in TEG was used, 42% divinyl-functionalized product was observed together with 56.5% oligomerized (di-, tri-, tetra- and pentamer) products. At 10 eq. of DVA, only 18.4% oligomerized products were obtained. The effect of diol molecular weight was also investigated. At 10.0 eq. DVA per OH only 2% dimer was observed with PEG M[subscript n]=1000 g/mol, and a single divinyl functionalized product was obtained with M[subscript n]=2000 g/mol. The effects of polymer molecular weight and DVA concentration were also studied in the reaction of DVA with PEG monomethyl ether (MPEG-OH, M[subscript n]=1100 g/mol and 2000 g/mol). The extent of coupling decreased from 35% to 0.4% when the DVA concentration was increased from 1.5 to 10 per -OH in the MPEG-OH. No coupling was observed with MPEG-OH M[subscript n]=2000 g/mol at 5 eq. DVA per -OH. Following these fundamental studies, TEGs and PEGs were enzymatically functionalized. TEGs were transesterified with VMA and vinyl crotonate in the presence of CALB under solventless conditions within 4 hours of reaction time. Benzyl protected TEG-OHs were also successfully functionalized with VMA and vinyl crotonate in the presence of CALB under solventless conditions within 2 hours. An eight-functional molecule was also synthesized from (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2. First an [alpha]-vinyl-[omega]-acrylate linker was prepared by the transesterification of DVA with 2HEA. This linker was then transesterified with (HO)2-TEG-(OH)2, followed by Michael addition of DEA to the tetra-acrylated TEG. PEGs were also successfully functionalized by the enzymatic transesterification using vinyl esters such as VMA, vinyl crotonate and VA under solventless conditions within 4 hours. PEG diacrylate was further functionalized by the Michael addition of DEA, resulting in a tetra-hydroxy functional PEG [(HO)2-PEG-(OH)2. The structure of all products was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MALDI-ToF MS.


Ribozymes And Rna Catalysis

Author by : David Malcolm James Lilley
Languange : en
Publisher by : Royal Society of Chemistry
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Description : The emphasis of this book concerns the origins of catalysis in RNA and is well suited for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in catalytic chemistry.


Enzyme Based Organic Synthesis

Author by : Cheanyeh Cheng
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wiley
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 431
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Description : The recent advances in enzyme technology, such as protein engineering, site-directed evolution, metabolic engineering, and enzyme immobilization, have made enzyme-based organic synthesis more competitive with organic synthesis derived from fossil fuels. This book discusses the methods and applications of enzymatic and microbial processes for organic synthesis, in particular asymmetric synthesis. Coverage also includes basic principles associated of enzyme specificity and catalytic abilities. The author details organic syntheses with the main classes of enzymes, illustrating their important characteristics of substrate and chemical specificity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity that these enzymes bring to organic synthesis. Applications for pharmaceutical and medicinal industry, food industry, cosmetics, fragrance, and health care are also described.


Synthetic Methods For Biologically Active Molecules

Author by : Elisabetta Brenna
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Total Read : 79
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Description : This useful reference focuses on the currently available toolbox of bio-catalysed reductions of C=O, C=C and formal C=N bonds to show which transformations can be reliably used in manufacturing processes and which still require improvements. Following an introductory chapter, chapters 2-4 present the synthetic strategies that are currently available for the reduction of C=C and C=O bonds and for reductive amination, by means of whole-cell catalysts and isolated enzymes. Chapters 5-7 go on to describe the improvements achieved thus far, illustrating the current versatility of enzymes in organic synthesis. Chapters 8-12 present the improvements brought about by the optimization of reaction conditions, and the use of particular synthetic sequences. The final chapter describes practical applications of bio-reductions for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. With its excellent and comprehensive overview, this book will be of great interest to those working in academia and industry. From the contents: * Development of Sustainable Biocatalyzed Reduction Processes for Organic Chemists * Reductases: From Natural Diversity to Biocatalysis and Emerging Enzymatic Activities. * Synthetic Strategies Based on C=C Bioreductions * Synthetic Strategies Based on C=O Bioreductions * Development of Novel Enzymes for the Improved Reduction of C=C Double Bonds * Development of Novel Enzymes for the Improved Reduction of C=O Double Bonds * Synthetic Applications of Aminotransferases * Strategies for Cofactor Regeneration in Biocatalyzed Reductions * Effects of Solvent System and Substrate Loading in Bioreduction * Perspectives in the Use of In-Situ Product Removal (ISPR) Techniques in Bioreductions * Multi-Enzymatic Cascade Reactions Based on Reduction Processes * Relevant Practical Applications of Bioreduction Processes in the Synthesis of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients


The Biorganic Chemistry Of Enzymatic Catalysis

Author by : Valerian T. D'Souza
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : This volume grew out of a symposium organized by the students of Professor Myron L. Bender. His research focused on the mechanisms of enzymatic catalysis and was instrumental in showing that enzymes do not possess magical powers to accelerate reactions a trillion times on an average, but follow simple rules of chemistry. A group of scientists who were trained by Bender have contributed some of their work to this book to pay homage to their mentor. The range of topics covered is such that researchers and industry with interest in biological chemistry will gain knowledge from the advances being made in related fields. The book shows organic chemists what advances have taken place in biological chemistry and biochemists will discover how principles of organic chemistry can be applied to reveal the powers of enzymatic catalysis.


Advances In Physical Organic Chemistry

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry provides the chemical community with authoritative and critical assessments of the many aspects of physical organic chemistry. The field is a rapidly developing one, with results and methodologies finding application from biology to solid state physics.


Microbial Biotechnology

Author by : Alexander N. Glazer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 10
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Description : Knowledge in microbiology is growing exponentially through the determination of genomic sequences of hundreds of microorganisms and the invention of new technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, to deal with this avalanche of information. These genomic data are now exploited in thousands of applications, ranging from those in medicine, agriculture, organic chemistry, public health, biomass conversion, to biomining. Microbial Biotechnology. Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology focuses on uses of major societal importance, enabling an in-depth analysis of these critically important applications. Some, such as wastewater treatment, have changed only modestly over time, others, such as directed molecular evolution, or 'green' chemistry, are as current as today's headlines. This fully revised second edition provides an exciting interdisciplinary journey through the rapidly changing landscape of discovery in microbial biotechnology. An ideal text for courses in applied microbiology and biotechnology courses, this book will also serve as an invaluable overview of recent advances in this field for professional life scientists and for the diverse community of other professionals with interests in biotechnology.


Asymmetric Organic Synthesis With Enzymes

Author by : Vicente Gotor
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 24
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Description : Perfect for biochemists, synthetic and organic chemists, this book covers all important reactions, including C-C coupling reactions, oxidation reactions and many more. Divided into two parts, the first section on methodology presents new innovative methods for enzymatic catalysis optimization, including such new trends as medium engineering, directed evolution and computer-aided prediction of enantioselectivity. The second and main section deals with applications to synthesis, showing important reaction types and their applications. Only those reactions with very high selectivity are presented, allowing readers to improve their own reaction yields.


Organic Chemistry

Author by : Michael B. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 70
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Description : Based on the premise that many, if not most, reactions in organic chemistry can be explained by variations of fundamental acid-base concepts, Organic Chemistry: An Acid–Base Approach provides a framework for understanding the subject that goes beyond mere memorization. The individual steps in many important mechanisms rely on acid–base reactions, and the ability to see these relationships makes understanding organic chemistry easier. Using several techniques to develop a relational understanding, this textbook helps students fully grasp the essential concepts at the root of organic chemistry. Providing a practical learning experience with numerous opportunities for self-testing, the book contains: Checklists of what students need to know before they begin to study a topic Checklists of concepts to be fully understood before moving to the next subject area Homework problems directly tied to each concept at the end of each chapter Embedded problems with answers throughout the material Experimental details and mechanisms for key reactions The reactions and mechanisms contained in the book describe the most fundamental concepts that are used in industry, biological chemistry and biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmacy. The concepts presented constitute the fundamental basis of life processes, making them critical to the study of medicine. Reflecting this emphasis, most chapters end with a brief section that describes biological applications for each concept. This text provides students with the skills to proceed to the next level of study, offering a fundamental understanding of acids and bases applied to organic transformations and organic molecules.


Ruthenium Catalysts And Fine Chemistry

Author by : Christian Bruneau
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : With contributions by numerous experts


Enzyme Catalysis In Organic Synthesis 3 Volume Set

Author by : Karlheinz Drauz
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wiley-VCH
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 58
Total Download : 253
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : This comprehensive three-volume set is the standard reference in the field of organic synthesis, catalysis and biocatalysis. Edited by a highly experienced and highly knowledgeable team with a tremendous amount of experience in this field and its applications, this edition retains the successful concept of past editions, while the contents are very much focused on new developments in the field. All the techniques described are directly transferable from the lab to the industrial scale, making for a very application-oriented approach. A must for all chemists and biotechnologists.


Reactions And Syntheses

Author by : Lutz F. Tietze
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
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Description : The second edition of this classic text book has been completely revised, updated, and extended to include chapters on biomimetic amination reactions, Wacker oxidation, and useful domino reactions. The first-class author team with long-standing experience in practical courses on organic chemistry covers a multitude of preparative procedures of reaction types and compound classes indispensable in modern organic synthesis. Throughout, the experiments are accompanied by the theoretical and mechanistic fundamentals, while the clearly structured sub-chapters provide concise background information, retrosynthetic analysis, information on isolation and purification, analytical data as well as current literature citations. Finally, in each case the synthesis is labeled with one of three levels of difficulty. An indispensable manual for students and lecturers in chemistry, organic chemists, as well as lab technicians and chemists in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.


The Organic Chemistry Of Drug Design And Drug Action Power Pdf

Author by : Richard B. Silverman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
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Description : This CD-ROM edition of Silverman's Organic Chemisry of Drug Design and Drug Action, Second Edition reflects the significant changes in the drug industry in recent years, using an accessible interactive approach. This CD-ROM integrates the author's own PowerPoint slides, indexed and linked to the book pages in PDF format. The three-part structure includes an all-electronic text with full-text search capabilites and nearly 800 powerpoint slides. This is a unique and powerful combination of electronic study guide and full book pages. Users can hyperlink seamlessly from the main text to key points and figures on the outline and back again. It serves as a wonderful supplement for instructors as well as a fully integrated text and study aid for students. * Three-part package includes 1) powerpoint, 2) integrated powerpoint and pdf-based text, and 3) fully searchable PDF-based text with index * Includes new full-color illustrations, structures, schemes, and figures as well as extensive chapter problems and exercises * User-friendly buttons transition from overview (study-guide) format to corresponding book page and back with the click of a mouse * Full-text search capabality an incomparable tool for researchers seeking specific references and/or unindexed phrases


Industrial Biotransformations

Author by : Andreas Liese
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 72
Total Download : 934
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Description : The completely revised second edition of this user-friendly and application-oriented overview of one-step biotransformations of industrial importance. Based on extensive literature and patent research, this book is unique in arranging each process in a systematic way to allow for easy comparison. All the chapters have been rewritten, with all the processes updated and more than 30 new processes added. Each set of data is accompanied by key literature citations, supported by flow sheets where available, reduced to their significant elements. In addition, an extensive index classified by substrates, products, enzymes, and companies provides direct access to each process, organized according to enzyme class. Biotechnologists, biochemists, microbiologists, process engineers and those working in the chemical and biotechnological industries will find here all the significant parameters characterizing both the biotransformation and the process.