The Rejection Of Continental Drift

Author by : Naomi Oreskes
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 42
Total Download : 756
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : In the early twentieth century, American earth scientists were united in their opposition to the new--and highly radical--notion of continental drift, even going so far as to label the theory "unscientific." Some fifty years later, however, continental drift was heralded as a major scientific breakthrough and today it is accepted as scientific fact. Why did American geologists reject so adamantly an idea that is now considered a cornerstone of the discipline? And why were their European colleagues receptive to it so much earlier? This book, based on extensive archival research on three continents, provides important new answers while giving the first detailed account of the American geological community in the first half of the century. Challenging previous historical work on this episode, Naomi Oreskes shows that continental drift was not rejected for the lack of a causal mechanism, but because it seemed to conflict with the basic standards of practice in American geology. This account provides a compelling look at how scientific ideas are made and unmade.


Alfred Wegener

Author by : Lisa Yount
Languange : en
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 831
File Size : 40,6 Mb
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Description : A biography of the man who created the theory of continental drift.


The Continental Drift Controversy

Author by : Henry R. Frankel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 809
File Size : 51,9 Mb
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Description : The definitive account of the early debate over Wegener's theory of continental drift, based on extensive interviews and archival material.


The Continental Drift Controversy Volume 1 Wegener And The Early Debate

Author by : Henry R. Frankel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 204
File Size : 43,7 Mb
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Description : The definitive account of the early debate over Wegener's theory of continental drift, based on extensive interviews and archival material.


Four Revolutions In The Earth Sciences

Author by : James Lawrence Powell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Columbia University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
Total Download : 452
File Size : 49,8 Mb
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Description : Over the course of the twentieth century, scientists came to accept four counterintuitive yet fundamental facts about the Earth: deep time, continental drift, meteorite impact, and global warming. When first suggested, each proposition violated scientific orthodoxy and was quickly denounced as scientific—and sometimes religious—heresy. Nevertheless, after decades of rejection, scientists came to accept each theory. The stories behind these four discoveries reflect more than the fascinating push and pull of scientific work. They reveal the provocative nature of science and how it raises profound and sometimes uncomfortable truths as it advances. For example, counter to common sense, the Earth and the solar system are older than all of human existence; the interactions among the moving plates and the continents they carry account for nearly all of the Earth's surface features; and nearly every important feature of our solar system results from the chance collision of objects in space. Most surprising of all, we humans have altered the climate of an entire planet and now threaten the future of civilization. This absorbing scientific history is the only book to describe the evolution of these four ideas from heresy to truth, showing how science works in practice and how it inevitably corrects the mistakes of its practitioners. Scientists can be wrong, but they do not stay wrong. In the process, astonishing ideas are born, tested, and over time take root.


Conceptual Revolutions

Author by : Paul Thagard
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 436
File Size : 42,8 Mb
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Description : In this path-breaking work, Paul Thagard draws on history and philosophy of science, cognitive psychology, and the field of artificial intelligence to develop a theory of conceptual change capable of accounting for all major scientific revolutions. The history of science contains dramatic episodes of revolutionary change in which whole systems of concepts have been replaced by new systems. For example, Copernicus's theory of the solar system supplanted Ptolemy's, and Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection replaced earlier creationist views. Thagard provides a new and comprehensive perspective on the transformation of scientific conceptual systems. In addition to examining the Copernican and the Darwinian revolutions, Thagard turns his attention to the emergence of Newton's mechanics, Lavoisier's oxygen theory, Einstein's theory of relativity, quantum theory, and the geological theory of plate tectonics. He discusses the psychological mechanisms by which new concepts and links between them are formed, and advances a computational theory of explanatory coherence to show how new theories can be judged to be superior to previous ones. To assess whether the field of psychology has undergone revolutions similar to those in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology, he describes the nature and growth of behaviorism and cognitivism. Finally, he compares the transformations in scientific revolutions with the kinds of conceptual change that developmental psychologists have observed in children. Conceptual Revolutions is essential reading for historians and philosophers of science, and has important implications as well for research in cognitive science. It is clearly written and shouldbe accessible to anyone interested in problems of scientific change.


Plate Tectonics A Very Short Introduction

Author by : Peter Molnar
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 74
Total Download : 171
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : The 1960s revealed a new and revolutionary idea in geological thought: that the continents drift with respect to one another. After having been dismissed for decades as absurd, the concept gradually became part of geology's basic principles. We now know that the Earth's crust and upper mantle consist of a small number of rigid plates that move, and there are significant boundaries between pairs of plates, usually known as earthquake belts. Plate tectonics now explains much of the structure and phenomena we see today: how oceans form, widen, and disappear; why earthquakes and volcanoes are found in distinct zones which follow plate boundaries; how the great mountain ranges of the world were built. The impact of plate tectonics is studied closely as these processes continue: the Himalaya continues to grow, the Atlantic is widening, and new oceans are forming. In this Very Short Introduction Peter Molnar provides a succinct and authoritative account of the nature and mechanisms of plate tectonics and its impact on our understanding of Earth. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Earth Inside And Out

Author by : David Roger Oldroyd
Languange : en
Publisher by : Geological Society of London
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 725
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description :


Earth Sciences History

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 624
File Size : 50,9 Mb
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Description :


Science Reason And Rhetoric

Author by : Henry Krips
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pittsburgh Pre
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 37
Total Download : 222
File Size : 48,7 Mb
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Description : This volume marks a unique collaboration by internationally distinguished scholars in the history, rhetoric, philosophy, and sociology of science. Converging on the central issues of rhetoric of science, the essays focus on figures such as Galileo, Harvey, Darwin, von Neumann; and on issues such as the debate over cold fusion or the continental drift controversy. Their vitality attests to the burgeoning interest in the rhetoric of science.