Description : Bachelor Thesis from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,7, Martin Luther University, 38 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The world of finance is complex. There are many aspects, which cannot be fully explained and still confuse the researchers. One of the most discussed topics is that of Initial Public Offerings (IPO) mainly because of the intricate connections between investment bankers (underwriters), issuers and buyers. This paper will try to summarize the whole process of going public and emphasize on the role of the (lead) underwriter in it. The paper discusses mainly the American "way" of going public, but the procedure is generally the same for the European market with some differences that are explained in the text. The advantages, disadvantages and the legal requirements for going public are enlightened, in order of understanding the important role, which the underwriter plays in the whole process. The structure and the legal consequences of the due diligence process are presented. The types of agreement between the underwriter and the issuer are described, with the consequences that originate from them. The ways of determining the price and the advantages and disadvantages of any of them are presented, with respect to the importance of the underwriter's role in them and the liabilities that she has. The problem with the underpricing is discussed more detailed, since this is one of the big challenges in the IPO process. Some theories that explain this phenomenon are briefly discussed, showing the mechanism that is behind the underpricing problem. Some of the unlawful allocation practices are listed, with examples that show that even the top underwriters use prohibited actions to ensure the successful completion of the IPO process. The importance of the pre-opening period for the determination of the right market price and the active participation of the underw
Description : In this timely volume on newly emerging financial mar- kets and investment strategies, Arvin Ghosh explores the intriguing topic of initial public offerings (IPOs) of securities, among the most significant phenomena in the United States stock markets in recent years. Before the 2000-2001 market turndown, hardly a week went by when more than a few companies did not become public, either in the organized stock exchange or in the Over the Counter (OTC) market. In the often over-burdened, technology-heavy Nasdaq market, the role of IPOs was crucial for the market's new vigor and growth. Internet stocks were able to find a mode to supply key momentum to the market. In the so-called "New Economy" of the 1990s, it was the seductively accessible IPO that ushered in the world's information technology revolution.Ghosh sets out to examine the pricing and financial performance of IPOs in the United States during the period 1990-2001. In the opening chapter he discusses the rise and fall of IPOs in the preceding decade. Chapter 2 further delineates the IPO process from the start of the prospectus to the end of the "quiet period" and aftermarket stabilization. In chapter 3 Ghosh analyzes the mispricing and deliberately deceptive underpricing, or "flipping," of Internet IPOs. Chapter 4 delves deeper into the pricing and operating efficiency of Nasdaq IPOs. Chapter 5 analyzes the pricing and long-run performance of IPOs both in the New York Stock Exchange and in the Nasdaq markets. In chapters 6 and 7 the author deals with the pricing and performance of the venture-blocked and nonventure-backed IPOs in general and Internet IPOs in particular. In chapter 8 he analyzes the role of underwriters as market makers. In chapter 9 Ghosh discusses the accuracy of analysts' earnings forecasts. In the concluding chapter, he summarizes the principal findings of the study and the recent revival of the IPO market and its place in capital formation as well as the latest developments in t
Description : A major international study on corporate governance and Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) in twenty-one countries.
Description : The purpose of this monograph on conducting an Initial Public Offering (IPO) is to review the existing evidence and suggest areas where our understanding is less complete of the process and would benefit from further research.
Description : A fully revised and updated second edition of the essential guide that tells you everything you want to know about IPOs in the UK. An initial public offering (IPO) - the occasion when a firm's shares are issued to the public for the first time - is one of the most exciting events in the life of a company, providing new opportunities for the business, its managers and for investors. IPOs attract a lot of attention from stock market researchers, academics and investors seeking to understand more about how they work and how the shares of IPO companies perform once they are listed. In this second edition of Initial Public Offerings, Arif Khurshed delves into the history of IPOs on the London Stock Exchange, explains the mechanics of how IPOs are arranged and how they are priced, and provides an analysis - with detailed but lucid reference to past academic studies - of how the shares of IPO companies perform in the short and long term. The book provides valuable insight into many fundamental IPO matters, including: - the different methods of flotation that are used, - the alternative ways in which IPO shares are priced, - how common it is for IPO shares to over or underperform, - the survival of IPO firms once they are listed. There are also detailed case studies of the short- and long-run performance of a number of high-profile IPOs, including those of Facebook, Alibaba and Royal Mail. If you are an academic, finance professional or serious investor looking to broaden your knowledge of stock market flotations then you will find Initial Public Offerings to be an indispensable guide.
Description : One of the biggest casualties of the aftermath of the dot com bubble was the IPO market. The early part of this century saw minimal IPO activity all over the world especially in western stock markets such as those of the UK and the US. However, for the last two or three years both firms considering an IPO and potential investors in those firms are back in business. 'The Investor's Guide to IPOs' is primarily written to benefit investors who wish to gain an in-depth understanding of the IPO market and to profit from investing in this market. The main aim of the book is to provide information on some fundamental questions related to investment in IPO markets such as how to pick up a good IPO investment and when is a good time to sell IPO shares. The book not only covers issues such as how to make an investment in the IPO market, it also throws light on what happens once an investment has been made.
Description : After the cooling off of IPOs since the dot com bubble, Google has rekindled the fire for IPOs. This IPO reader contains new articles exclusive to this reader by leading academics from around the world dealing with quantitative and qualitative analyses of this increasingly popular and important area of finance. Articles address new methods of IPO performance, international IPOs, IPO evaluation, IPO underwriting, evaluation and bookbuilding. Although numerous articles are technical in nature, with econometric and statistical models, particular attention has been directed towards the understanding and the applicability of the results as well as theoretical development in this area. This reader will assist researchers, academics, and graduate students to further understand the latest research on IPOs. *Interest in IPOs is increasing again after the Google IPO, and IPOs are up significantly from last year *Chapters by well known academics provide an international perspective, describing research results from IPO data in countries spanning the globe *Research is based on real results from IPO data collected over the past 5-7 years
Description : Master's Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 2.3, University of Duisburg-Essen, course: Energy & Finance, language: English, abstract: The Initial Public Offering (IPO) which marks one the most important events of a company basically aims to generate maximum proceeds by selling company’s shares to investors. Nevertheless, the shares they sell often seem to be underpriced, insofar that the price significantly soars on the first trading day. Consequently, the company generates fewer proceeds and, hence “leaves money on the table.” Since the very first detection of this phenomenon in the United States in 1969, several subsequent studies documented the existence of worldwide IPO underpricing nowadays. Considering that underpricing is costly for the company, a question arises why, therefore, despite the fact that the companies “leave money on the table”, they do not try to avoid this by setting the issuing price on the very high? One of the most striking features of this question is that it had inspired many researchers who tried to explain in various models why IPOs are generally underpriced. Besides, a lot of theoretical explanations concerning this phenomenon have been given by now; however, no common sense has been so far developed.[...]
Description : This publication identifies the reason leading small business owner-managers to choose stock-type public funding, and assesses the effects of their choice on both themselves and their firm. It compares listed and unlisted firms.