Description : Bachelor Thesis from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, grade: 1,7, Martin Luther University, 38 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The world of finance is complex. There are many aspects, which cannot be fully explained and still confuse the researchers. One of the most discussed topics is that of Initial Public Offerings (IPO) mainly because of the intricate connections between investment bankers (underwriters), issuers and buyers. This paper will try to summarize the whole process of going public and emphasize on the role of the (lead) underwriter in it. The paper discusses mainly the American "way" of going public, but the procedure is generally the same for the European market with some differences that are explained in the text. The advantages, disadvantages and the legal requirements for going public are enlightened, in order of understanding the important role, which the underwriter plays in the whole process. The structure and the legal consequences of the due diligence process are presented. The types of agreement between the underwriter and the issuer are described, with the consequences that originate from them. The ways of determining the price and the advantages and disadvantages of any of them are presented, with respect to the importance of the underwriter's role in them and the liabilities that she has. The problem with the underpricing is discussed more detailed, since this is one of the big challenges in the IPO process. Some theories that explain this phenomenon are briefly discussed, showing the mechanism that is behind the underpricing problem. Some of the unlawful allocation practices are listed, with examples that show that even the top underwriters use prohibited actions to ensure the successful completion of the IPO process. The importance of the pre-opening period for the determination of the right market price and the active participation of the underw
Description : In this timely volume on newly emerging financial mar- kets and investment strategies, Arvin Ghosh explores the intriguing topic of initial public offerings (IPOs) of securities, among the most significant phenomena in the United States stock markets in recent years. Before the 2000-2001 market turndown, hardly a week went by when more than a few companies did not become public, either in the organized stock exchange or in the Over the Counter (OTC) market. In the often over-burdened, technology-heavy Nasdaq market, the role of IPOs was crucial for the market's new vigor and growth. Internet stocks were able to find a mode to supply key momentum to the market. In the so-called "New Economy" of the 1990s, it was the seductively accessible IPO that ushered in the world's information technology revolution.Ghosh sets out to examine the pricing and financial performance of IPOs in the United States during the period 1990-2001. In the opening chapter he discusses the rise and fall of IPOs in the preceding decade. Chapter 2 further delineates the IPO process from the start of the prospectus to the end of the "quiet period" and aftermarket stabilization. In chapter 3 Ghosh analyzes the mispricing and deliberately deceptive underpricing, or "flipping," of Internet IPOs. Chapter 4 delves deeper into the pricing and operating efficiency of Nasdaq IPOs. Chapter 5 analyzes the pricing and long-run performance of IPOs both in the New York Stock Exchange and in the Nasdaq markets. In chapters 6 and 7 the author deals with the pricing and performance of the venture-blocked and nonventure-backed IPOs in general and Internet IPOs in particular. In chapter 8 he analyzes the role of underwriters as market makers. In chapter 9 Ghosh discusses the accuracy of analysts' earnings forecasts. In the concluding chapter, he summarizes the principal findings of the study and the recent revival of the IPO market and its place in capital formation as well as the latest developments in t
Description : Initial public offerings (IPOs), or new listings of companies on stock exchanges, are among the most important form of finance and generate considerable attention and excitement. They are used to raise capital or to monetize investments by the early generation of venture capital and other private investors. They are increasingly international in scope and reach, especially with non-American firms offering on American stock exchanges. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of why companies list on stock exchanges, how IPOs are regulated, initially valued, and their performance in the short and long run. The first part examines the economics of IPOs, and offers statistics and regulatory insights from the United States and other countries around the world. The volume then covers mergers versus IPOs, as well as reverse mergers and special purpose acquisition companies. Part III analyzes institutional ties in IPOs, including analysts, investment banks, auditors, and venture capitalists. The fourth section provides international perspectives on IPOs from a number of countries around the world. Part V discusses alternatives to IPOs, including private marketplaces, and crowdfunding. Reflecting the range of disciplines that analyze IPOs, the contributors come from the fields of finance, international business and management, economics, and law. The chapters cover the latest information on a range of fundamental questions that are of interest to academics, practitioners, and policymakers alike.
Description : A major international study on corporate governance and Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) in twenty-one countries.
Description : The purpose of this monograph on conducting an Initial Public Offering (IPO) is to review the existing evidence and suggest areas where our understanding is less complete of the process and would benefit from further research.
Description : After the cooling off of IPOs since the dot com bubble, Google has rekindled the fire for IPOs. This IPO reader contains new articles exclusive to this reader by leading academics from around the world dealing with quantitative and qualitative analyses of this increasingly popular and important area of finance. Articles address new methods of IPO performance, international IPOs, IPO evaluation, IPO underwriting, evaluation and bookbuilding. Although numerous articles are technical in nature, with econometric and statistical models, particular attention has been directed towards the understanding and the applicability of the results as well as theoretical development in this area. This reader will assist researchers, academics, and graduate students to further understand the latest research on IPOs. *Interest in IPOs is increasing again after the Google IPO, and IPOs are up significantly from last year *Chapters by well known academics provide an international perspective, describing research results from IPO data in countries spanning the globe *Research is based on real results from IPO data collected over the past 5-7 years