The Smells and Senses of Antiquity in the Modern Imagination

The Smells and Senses of Antiquity in the Modern Imagination
Author: Adeline Grand-Clément,Charlotte Ribeyrol
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2021-12-16
ISBN: 1350169730
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Smells and Senses of Antiquity in the Modern Imagination Book Excerpt:

This volume tackles the role of smell, under-explored in relation to the other senses, in the modern rejection, reappraisal and idealisation of antiquity. Among the senses olfaction in particular has often been overlooked in classical reception studies due to its evanescent nature, which makes this sense difficult to apprehend in its past instantiations. And yet, the smells associated with a given figure or social group convey a rich imagery which in turn connotes specific values: perfumes, scents and foul odours both reflect and mould the ways in which a society thinks or acts. Smells also help to distinguish between male and female, citizens and strangers, and play an important role during rituals. The Smells and Senses of Antiquity in the Modern Imagination focuses on the representation of ancient smells - both enticing and repugnant - in the visual and performative arts from the late 18th century up to the 21st century. The individual contributions explore painting, sculpture, literature and film, but also theatrical performance, museum exhibitions, advertising, television series, historical reenactment and graphic novels, which have all played a part in reshaping modern audiences' perceptions and experiences of the antique.

The Oxford Handbook of Decadence

The Oxford Handbook of Decadence
Author: Jane Desmarais,David Weir,Professor Emeritus of Comparative Literature David Weir
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 745
Release: 2022-04-20
ISBN: 0190066954
Category: Electronic Book
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Oxford Handbook of Decadence Book Excerpt:

The meaning of decadence varies with context, depending on what (or who) is understood to have declined, decayed, or degenerated. These negative meanings are familiar from history (the decline and fall of Rome), sociology (the decay of communities), morality (the degeneration of values), and more, including such popular conceptions of decadence as excess and corruption. At the same time, all of this negative decadence has found positive cultural expression, principally in literature, through the work of such celebrated nineteenth-century decadents as Charles Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde, and many others. This volume takes the study of decadence beyond these canonical literary works to explore the phenomenon in broader historical, geographical, and cultural contexts. In thirty-five chapters by esteemed scholars from a range of disciplines, the Oxford Handbook of Decadence addresses different critical periods, such as classical antiquity, various ages of empire, the interwar era in the twentieth century, and contemporary times, as well as key places--France, Belgium, Britain, Italy, Germany, the Nordic nations, Russia and Ukraine, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan--and such genres as the novel, the short story, drama, the essay, prose poetry, and film. The volume also considers decadence more broadly as a culture not limited to literature by tracing its manifestations in such material forms as book design, fashion, interior decoration, and architecture, as well as through the experiential register of the senses: decadent vision, sound, smell, taste, and touch are all reflected, respectively, in painting, music, perfume, cuisine, and feeling. Finally, the chapters explore the theoretical resonance of decadence in such fields as theology, science, ecology, politics, psychoanalysis, and philosophy. By illuminating the various ways decadence can be construed, the Handbook offers an in-depth and original exploration into the paradox of decadence: a culture that draws its creative energy from the idea of decline.

Geographies of Myth and Places of Identity

Geographies of Myth and Places of Identity
Author: Marco Benoît Carbone
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2022-01-13
ISBN: 1350118192
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Geographies of Myth and Places of Identity Book Excerpt:

Turning to a region of South Italy associated with Greater Greece and the geographies of Homer's Odyssey, Marco Benoît Carbone delivers a historical and ethnographic treatment of how places defined in public imagination and media by their associated histories become sites of memory and identity, as their landscape and mythologies turn into insignia of a romanticised antiquity. For the ancient Greeks, Homer had set the marine monsters of the Odyssey in the Strait between Calabria and Sicily. Since then, this passage has been glowing with the aura of its mythological landmarks. Travellers and tourists have played Odysseus by re-enacting his journey. Scholars and explorers have explained the myths as metaphors of whirlpools and marine fauna. The iconic Strait and village of Scilla have turned into place-myths and playgrounds, defined by the region's heritage. Carbone observes the enduring impact of Hellas on the real Strait today. The continuous rekindling of cultural and visual traditions of place in the arts, media, travel, and tourism have intersected with philhellenic historiographies, shaping local policies, public histories, views of development, and forms of Hellenicist identitarianism. Elements of society have celebrated the landscape of the Odyssey, appropriated Homer as their imagined heirs, and purported themselves as the original Europeans–pandering to outdated ideological appropriations of 'classical' antiquity and exclusionary, West-centric views of the Mediterranean.

The Sense of Smell in the Middle Ages

The Sense of Smell in the Middle Ages
Author: Katelynn Robinson
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2019-09-09
ISBN: 042981593X
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Sense of Smell in the Middle Ages Book Excerpt:

Odors, including those of incense, spices, cooking, and refuse, were both ubiquitous and meaningful in central and late medieval Western Europe. The significance of the sense of smell is evident in scholastic Latin texts, most of which are untranslated and unedited by modern scholars. Between the late eleventh and thirteenth century, medieval scholars developed a logical theory of the workings of the sense of smell based on Greek and Arabic learning. In the thirteenth through fifteenth century, medical authors detailed practical applications of smell theory and these were communicated to individuals and governing authorities by the medical profession in the interests of personal and public health. At the same time, religious authors read philosophical and medical texts and gave their information religious meaning. This reinterpretation of scholastic philosophy and medicine led to the development of what can be termed a medically aware theology of smell that was communicated to popular audiences alongside traditional olfactory theory in sermons. Its impact on popular thought is reflected in late medieval mystical texts. While the senses have received increasing scholarly attention in recent decades, this volume presents the first detailed research into the sense of smell in the later European Middle Ages.

A Cultural History of the Senses in Antiquity

A Cultural History of the Senses in Antiquity
Author: Jerry Toner
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2014-10-23
ISBN: 1474232981
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Cultural History of the Senses in Antiquity Book Excerpt:

The ancient world used the senses to express an enormous range of cultural meanings. Indeed the senses were functionally significant in all aspects of ancient life, often in ways that were complex and interconnected. Antiquity was also a period where the senses were experienced vividly: cities stank, statues were brightly painted and literature made full use of sensory imagery to create its effects. In a steeply hierarchical world, with vast differences between the landed wealthy, the poor and the slaves, the senses played a key role in establishing and maintaining boundaries between social groups; but the use of the senses in the ancient world was not static. New religions, such as Christianity, developed their own way of using the senses, acquiring unique forms of sensory-related symbolism in processes which were slow and often contested. The aim of this volume is to provide an overview of these structures and developments and to show how their study can yield a more nuanced understanding of the ancient world. A Cultural History of the Senses in Antiquity presents essays on the following topics: the social life of the senses; urban sensations; the senses in the marketplace; the senses in religion; the senses in philosophy and science; medicine and the senses; the senses in literature; art and the senses; and sensory media.

The Smell of Slavery

The Smell of Slavery
Author: Andrew Kettler
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-05-28
ISBN: 1108846599
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Smell of Slavery Book Excerpt:

In the Atlantic World, different groups were aromatically classified in opposition to other ethnic, gendered, and class assemblies due to an economic necessity that needed certain bodies to be defined as excremental, which culminated in the creation of a progressive tautology that linked Africa and waste through a conceptual hendiadys born of capitalist licentiousness. The African subject was defined as a scented object, appropriated as filthy to create levels of ownership through discourse that marked African peoples as unable to access spaces of Western modernity. Embodied cultural knowledge was potent enough to alter the biological function of the five senses to create a European olfactory consciousness made to sense the African other as foul. Fascinating, informative, and deeply researched, The Smell of Slavery exposes that concerns with pungency within the Western self were emitted outward upon the freshly dug outhouse of the mass slave grave called the Atlantic World.

The Scent of Ancient Magic

The Scent of Ancient Magic
Author: Britta K. Ager
Publsiher: University of Michigan Press
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2022
ISBN: 0472133020
Category: HISTORY
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Scent of Ancient Magic Book Excerpt:

Magic was a fundamental part of the Greco-Roman world. Curses, erotic spells, healing charms, divination, and other supernatural methods of trying to change the universe were everyday methods of coping with the difficulties of life in antiquity. While ancient magic is most often studied through texts like surviving Greco-Egyptian spellbooks and artifacts like lead curse tablets, for a Greek or Roman magician a ritual was a rich sensual experience full of unusual tastes, smells, textures, and sounds, bright colors, and sensations like fasting and sleeplessness. Greco-Roman magical rituals were particularly dominated by the sense of smell, both fragrant smells and foul odors. Ritual practitioners surrounded themselves with clouds of fragrant incense and perfume to create a sweet and inviting atmosphere for contact with the divine and to alter their own perceptions; they also used odors as an instrumental weapon to attack enemies and command the gods. Elsewhere, odiferous herbs were used equally as medical cures and magical ingredients. In literature, scent and magic became intertwined as metaphors, with fragrant spells representing the dangers of sensual perfumes and conversely, smells acting as a visceral way of envisioning the mysterious action of magic. The Scent of Ancient Magic explores the complex interconnection of scent and magic in the Greco-Roman world between 800 BCE and CE 600, drawing on ancient literature and the modern study of the senses to examine the sensory depth and richness of ancient magic. Author Britta K. Ager looks at how ancient magicians used scents as part of their spells, to put themselves in the right mindset for an encounter with a god or to attack their enemies through scent. Ager also examines the magicians who appear in ancient fiction, like Medea and Circe, and the more metaphorical ways in which their spells are confused with perfumes and herbs. This book brings together recent scholarship on ancient magic from classical studies and on scent from the interdisciplinary field of sensory studies in order to examine how practicing ancient magicians used scents for ritual purposes, how scent and magic were conceptually related in ancient literature and culture, and how the assumption that strong scents convey powerful effects of various sorts was also found in related areas like ancient medical practices and normative religious ritual.

Enargeia in Classical Antiquity and the Early Modern Age

Enargeia in Classical Antiquity and the Early Modern Age
Author: Heinrich F. Plett
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 252
Release: 2012-08-14
ISBN: 9004231188
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Enargeia in Classical Antiquity and the Early Modern Age Book Excerpt:

The present study provides an extensive treatment of the topic of enargeia on the basis of the classical and humanist sources of its theoretical foundation. These serve as the basis for detailed analyses of verbal and pictorial works of the Classical Antiquity and the Early Modern Age.

Literature Belief and Knowledge in Early Modern England

Literature  Belief and Knowledge in Early Modern England
Author: Subha Mukherji,Tim Stuart-Buttle
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2018-05-17
ISBN: 3319713590
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Literature Belief and Knowledge in Early Modern England Book Excerpt:

The primary aim of Knowing Faith is to uncover the intervention of literary texts and approaches in a wider conversation about religious knowledge: why we need it, how to get there, where to stop, and how to recognise it once it has been attained. Its relative freedom from specialised disciplinary investments allows a literary lens to bring into focus the relatively elusive strands of thinking about belief, knowledge and salvation, probing the particulars of affect implicit in the generalities of doctrine. The essays in this volume collectively probe the dynamic between literary form, religious faith and the process, psychology and ethics of knowing in early modern England. Addressing both the poetics of theological texts and literary treatments of theological matter, they stretch from the Reformation to the early Enlightenment, and cover a variety of themes ranging across religious hermeneutics, rhetoric and controversy, the role of the senses, and the entanglement of justice, ethics and practical theology. The book should appeal to scholars of early modern literature and culture, theologians and historians of religion, and general readers with a broad interest in Renaissance cultures of knowing.

Smell and the Ancient Senses

Smell and the Ancient Senses
Author: Mark Bradley
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2014-12-17
ISBN: 1317565819
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smell and the Ancient Senses Book Excerpt:

From flowers and perfumes to urban sanitation and personal hygiene, smell—a sense that is simultaneously sublime and animalistic—has played a pivotal role in western culture and thought. Greek and Roman writers and thinkers lost no opportunity to connect the smells that bombarded their senses to the social, political and cultural status of the individuals and environments that they encountered: godly incense and burning sacrifices, seductive scents, aromatic cuisines, stinking bodies, pungent farmyards and festering back-streets. The cultural study of smell has largely focused on pollution, transgression and propriety, but the olfactory sense came into play in a wide range of domains and activities: ancient medicine and philosophy, religion, botany and natural history, erotic literature, urban planning, dining, satire and comedy—where odours, aromas, scents and stenches were rich and versatile components of the ancient sensorium. The first comprehensive introduction to the role of smell in the history, literature and society of classical antiquity, Smell and the Ancient Senses explores and probes the ways that the olfactory sense can contribute to our perceptions of ancient life, behaviour, identity and morality.

Empires of the Senses

Empires of the Senses
Author: Andrew J. Rotter
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2019-06-21
ISBN: 0190924721
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Empires of the Senses Book Excerpt:

When encountering unfamiliar environments in India and the Philippines, the British and the Americans wrote extensively about the first taste of mango and meat spiced with cumin, the smell of excrement and coconut oil, the feel of humidity and rough cloth against skin, the sound of bells and insects, and the appearance of dark-skinned natives and lepers. So too did the colonial subjects they encountered perceive the agents of empire through their senses and their skins. Empire of course involved economics, geopolitics, violence, a desire for order and greatness, a craving for excitement and adventure. It also involved an encounter between authorities and subjects, an everyday process of social interaction, political negotiation, policing, schooling, and healing. While these all concerned what people thought about each other, perceptions of others, as Andrew Rotter shows, were also formed through seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting. In this book, Rotter offers a sensory history of the British in India from the formal imposition of their rule to its end (1857-1947) and the Americans in the Philippines from annexation to independence (1898-1946). The British and the Americans saw themselves as the civilizers of what they judged backward societies, and they believed that a vital part of the civilizing process was to properly prioritize the senses and to ensure them against offense or affront. Societies that looked shabby, were noisy and smelly, felt wrong, and consumed unwholesome food in unmannerly ways were unfit for self-government. It was the duty of allegedly more sensorily advanced Anglo-Americans to educate them before formally withdrawing their power. Indians and Filipinos had different ideas of what constituted sensory civilization and to some extent resisted imperial efforts to impose their own versions. What eventually emerged were compromises between these nations' sensory regimes. A fascinating and original comparative work, Empires of the Senses offers new perspectives on imperial history.

A History of the Senses

A History of the Senses
Author: Robert Jütte
Publsiher: Polity
Total Pages: 395
Release: 2005
ISBN: 0745629571
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A History of the Senses Book Excerpt:

This path-breaking book examines our attitudes to the senses from antiquity through to the present day. Robert Jutte explores a wealth of different traditions, images, metaphors and ideas that have survived through time and describes how sensual impressions change the way in which we experience the world. Throughout history, societies have been both intrigued or unsettled by the five senses. The author looks at the way in which the social world conditions our perception and traces the 'rediscovery' of sensual pleasure in the twentieth century, paying attention to experiences as varied as fast food, deoderization, and extra-sensory perception. He concludes by exploring technological change and cyberspace, reflecting on how developments in these fields will affect our relationship with the senses in the future.

SENSORIVM The Senses in Roman Polytheism

SENSORIVM  The Senses in Roman Polytheism
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 476
Release: 2021-05-31
ISBN: 900445974X
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

SENSORIVM The Senses in Roman Polytheism Book Excerpt:

SENSORIVM publishes the first results of a collective investigation into how Roman rituals smelled, sounded, felt and struck the eye. It brings Roman religious experience into the realm of the senses.

The Routledge Handbook of the Senses in the Ancient Near East

The Routledge Handbook of the Senses in the Ancient Near East
Author: Kiersten Neumann,Allison Thomason
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 770
Release: 2021-09-30
ISBN: 100043642X
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Routledge Handbook of the Senses in the Ancient Near East Book Excerpt:

This Handbook is a state-of-the-field volume containing diverse approaches to sensory experience, bringing to life in an innovative, remarkably vivid, and visceral way the lives of past humans through contributions that cover the chronological and geographical expanse of the ancient Near East. It comprises thirty-two chapters written by leading international contributors that look at the ways in which humans, through their senses, experienced their lives and the world around them in the ancient Near East, with coverage of Anatolia, Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Persia, from the Neolithic through the Roman period. It is organised into six parts related to sensory contexts: Practice, production, and taskscape; Dress and the body; Ritualised practice and ceremonial spaces; Death and burial; Science, medicine, and aesthetics; and Languages and semantic fields. In addition to exploring what makes each sensory context unique, this organisation facilitates cross-cultural and cross-chronological, as well as cross-sensory and multisensory comparisons and discussions of sensory experiences in the ancient world. In so doing, the volume also enables considerations of senses beyond the five-sense model of Western philosophy (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), including proprioception and interoception, and the phenomena of synaesthesia and kinaesthesia. The Routledge Handbook of the Senses in the Ancient Near East provides scholars and students within the field of ancient Near Eastern studies new perspectives on and conceptions of familiar spaces, places, and practices, as well as material culture and texts. It also allows scholars and students from adjacent fields such as Classics and Biblical Studies to engage with this material, and is a must-read for any scholar or student interested in or already engaged with the field of sensory studies in any period.

Sensing the Past

Sensing the Past
Author: Mark Michael Smith,Carolina Distinguished Professor of History Mark M Smith
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 180
Release: 2007
ISBN: 9780520254954
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sensing the Past Book Excerpt:

"Smith's history of the sensate is destined to precipitate a revolution in our understanding of the sensibilities that underpinned the mentalities of past epochs."--David Howes, author of Sensual Relations: Engaging the Senses in Culture and Social Theory "Mark M. Smith presents a far-ranging essay on the history of the senses that serves simultaneously as a good introduction to the historiography. If one feels in danger of sensory overload from this growing body of scholarship, Smith's piece is a useful preventive."--Leigh E. Schmidt, author of Restless Souls: The Making of American Spirituality "This is a masterful overview. The history of the senses has been a frontier field for a while now. Mark Smith draws together what we know, with an impressive sensory range, and encourages further work. A really exciting survey."--Peter N. Stearns, author of American Fear: The Causes and Consequences of High Anxiety "Who would ever have guessed that a book on the history of the senses--seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling--could be informative, thought-provoking, and, at the same time, most entertaining? Ranging in both time and locale, Mark Smith's Sensing the Past makes even the philosophy about the senses from ancient times to now both learned and exciting. This work will draw scholars into under-recognized subjects and lay readers into a world we simply but unwisely take for granted."--Bertram Wyatt-Brown, author of Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South "Mark M. Smith has a good record of communicating his research to a broad constituency within and beyond the academy . . . This will be required reading for anyone addressing sensory history."--Penelope Gouk, author of Music, Science and Natural Magic in Seventeenth Century England "This is a fine cultural history of the body, which takes Western and Eastern traditions and their texts quite seriously. Smith views a history of the senses not only from 'below' but places it squarely in the historical imagination. It will be of interest to a wide range of readers."--Sander L. Gilman, author of Difference and Pathology

Taste and Knowledge in Early Modern England

Taste and Knowledge in Early Modern England
Author: Elizabeth L. Swann
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2020-10-15
ISBN: 1108487653
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Taste and Knowledge in Early Modern England Book Excerpt:

Pioneering investigation into relationship between physical sense of taste, and taste as a term denoting judgement, in early modern England.

Authority of Expression in Early Modern England

Authority of Expression in Early Modern England
Author: Nely Keinänen,Maria Saleniu
Publsiher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Total Pages: 225
Release: 2009-03-26
ISBN: 1443808024
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Authority of Expression in Early Modern England Book Excerpt:

Authority of Expression in Early Modern England brings together an international group of scholars writing on the relationships between authority and the self in early modern English literature, discussing writers such as Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Thomas Middleton and Andrew Marvell. The early modern period was a time of momentous religious, political and cultural change, with scientific and geographical exploration opening new horizons, challenging established truths, and unsettling the concepts and practices of authority. In this book, scholars approach the texts from a literary, historical and/or linguistic point of view, thus providing multiple perspectives on the topic. Themes explored include the links between sense perception and cognition in the establishment of authority; the ways that sexuality, gender relations and language are implicated in expressing and responding to authority; and conceptions of the self and the strategies that individuals adopt to cope with changes in their frameworks of authority and power. This wide-ranging collection offers new perspectives on how authority was negotiated in the English Renaissance.

Empire of the Senses

Empire of the Senses
Author: David Howes
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2021-08-05
ISBN: 1000515435
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Empire of the Senses Book Excerpt:

With groundbreaking contributions by Marshall McLuhan, Oliver Sacks, Italo Calvino and Alain Corbin, among others, Empire of the Senses overturns linguistic and textual models of interpretation and places sensory experience at the forefront of cultural analysis. The senses are gateways of knowledge, instruments of power, sources of pleasure and pain - and they are subject to dramatically different constructions in different societies and periods. Empire of the Senses charts the new terrains opened up by the sensual revolution in scholarship, as it takes the reader into the sensory worlds of the medieval witch and the postmodern mall, a Japanese tea ceremony and a Boston shelter for the homeless. This compelling revisioning of history and cultural studies sparkles with wit and insight and is destined to become a landmark in the field.

Re Wiring The Ancient Novel 2 Volume set

Re Wiring The Ancient Novel  2 Volume set
Author: Edmund Cueva,Stephen Harrison,Hugh Mason,William Owens,Saundra Schwartz
Publsiher: Barkhuis
Total Pages: 773
Release: 2019-02-28
ISBN: 9492444690
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Re Wiring The Ancient Novel 2 Volume set Book Excerpt:

The Fifth International Conference on the Ancient Novel, which was held in Houston, Texas, in the fall of 2015, brought together scholars and students of the ancient novel from all over the world in order to share new and significant developments about this fascinating field of study and its important place in the field of Classical Studies. The essays contained in these two volumes are clear evidence that the ancient novel has become a valuable part of the Classics canon and its scholarly attempts to understand the ancient Graeco-Roman world.

Sensory Perception

Sensory Perception
Author: Friedrich G. Barth,Patrizia Giampieri-Deutsch,Hans-Dieter Klein
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2012-02-01
ISBN: 3211997504
Category: Medical
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sensory Perception Book Excerpt:

Sensory perception: mind and matter aims at a deeper understanding of the many facets of sensory perception and their relations to brain function and cognition. It is an attempt to promote the interdisciplinary discourse between the neurosciences and psychology, which speaks the language of cognitive experiences, and philosophy, which has been thinking about the meaning and origin of consciousness since its beginning. Leading experts contribute to such a discourse by informing the reader about exciting modern developments, both technical and conceptual, and by pointing to the big gaps still to be bridged. The various chapters provide access to scientific research on sensory perception and the mind from a broad perspective, covering a large spectrum of topics which range from the molecular mechanisms at work in sensory cells to the study of the unconscious and to neurophilosophy.