Description : This narrative history describes the events preceding, and the prosecution of, the Texas Revolution and the U.S.–Mexican War. It begins with the introduction of the empresario system in Mexico in 1823, a system of land distribution to American farmers and ranchers in an attempt to strengthen the postwar economy following Mexico’s independence from Spain. Once welcomed as fellow countrymen, the new settlers, homesteading on land destined to be called Texas, were viewed as enemies when in 1835 they revolted against the government’s harsh Centralist rulings. Winning independence from Mexico and recognition from the United States as the independent Republic of Texas only intensified the Mexican refusal to accept their loss of Texas as legitimate. The final straw for both sides came when Texas was granted U.S. statehood and 11 American soldiers were ambushed and murdered. As a result, Congress declared war on Mexico, a bloody conflict that resulted in the U.S. gain of 525,000 square miles.
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Description : *Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the fighting *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading When various revolutions mostly forced the Europeans out of the continent, Texas ceased to belong to Spain and France to become a part of the Mexican Empire; later it was an independent country, and currently one of the 50 states of the United States. During a short period, rebellious Texas again separated from the U.S. to join the Confederate States of America with other secessionist states. Of course, the most important war of all for Texas came in the early 19th century, and the common story heard in America is about rebellion against intolerance, oppression and Mexican cruelty. The Battle of the Alamo in particular, surrounded by legend and testimonies of heroism, is a textbook example of the fight for freedom, comparable to the Jewish defenders during the Roman siege at Masada. The words "martyrs" and "Mexican tyranny" are almost always present in the recounts, and "Remember the Alamo!" is both a slogan of self-glorification and martyrdom that remains one of the most famous phrases in America. Texas formally asked to be annexed by the United States in 1845. This annexation angered the Mexican government, which still considered Texas to be part of its territory. Mexico had previously warned that the annexation of Texas would cause Mexico to declare war on the United States. When the annexation bill was passed by Congress, it included an additional provocation to Mexico: it claimed that the southern border of Texas was the Rio Grande. The actual territory controlled by the Republic of Texas did not extend nearly to the Rio Grande, and this border would represent a further loss of territory to the United States. When a Mexican patrol attacked American cavalry in the disputed area north of the Rio Grande, President Polk went to Congress for a declaration of war. The declaration passed on May 13, 1846. The war against Mexico was unpopular with the opposition Whig party, especially in the North. Opponents of the war denounced it as a war of aggression, and denied that there had been a valid reason for war. Small American military units were quickly able to occupy key points in California, including San Francisco and Los Angeles. Although California was sparsely populated, some Mexican inhabitants formed an effective resistance which was eventually put down in 1847 by American reinforcements. Subsequently, a larger American army was sent to invade central Mexico, and managed to capture the Mexican capital, Mexico City, on September 13, 1847. Although a large Mexican army was still fighting American forces in northeast Mexico and Texas, news of the capital falling caused it to retreat to try to retake the capital. After the defeat of the last Mexican army, major hostilities ended. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War in February 1848. Mexico agreed to sell over half its territory for less than half of the money the United States had offered only two years earlier. As the Army occupied most of Mexico's major cities, Mexico had no choice but to accept the American terms. The new territory acquired in the treaty included all or part of the present day states of California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. The Texas Revolution and Mexican-American War: The History and Legacy of the Conflicts that Led to Mexico's Cession of the American Southwest looks at the controversial wars and their aftermath. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about the conflicts like never before.
Description : An overview of the Mexican War from both the American and Mexican perspectives includes biographical sketches of important figures, nine maps, a detailed chronology, twelve annotated primary documents, and political cartoons and other artistic depictionsof the events discussed.
Description : "Historically, wars and revolutions have offered politically and socially disadvantaged people the opportunity to contribute to the nation (or cause) in exchange for future expanded rights. Although shorter than most conflicts, the Texas Revolution nonetheless profoundly affected not only the leaders and armies, but the survivors, especially women, who endured those tumultuous events and whose lives were altered by the accompanying political, social, and economic changes.
Description : The war between the United States and Mexico was decades in the making. Although Texas was an independent republic from 1836 to 1845, Texans retained an affiliation with the United States that virtually assured annexation at some point. Mexico's reluctance to give up Texas put it on a collision course with the United States. The Mexican War receives scant treatment in books. Most historians approach the conflict as if it were a mere prelude to the Civil War. The Mexican cession of 1848, however, rivaled the Louisiana Purchase in importance for the sheer amount of territory acquired by the United States. The dispute over slavery-which had been rendered largely academic by the Missouri Compromise-burst forth anew as Americans now faced the realization that they must make a decision over the institution's future. The political battle over the status of slavery in these new territories was the direct cause of the Crisis of 1850 and ignited sectional differences in the decade that followed. In Crisis in the Southwest: The United States, Mexico, and the Struggle over Texas, Richard Bruce Winders provides a concise, accessible overview of the Mexican War and argues that the Mexican War led directly to the Civil War by creating a political and societal crisis that drove a wedge between the North and the South. While on the surface the enemy was Mexico, in reality Americans were at odds with one another over the future of the nation, as the issue of annexation threatened to upset the balance between free and slave states. Winders also explains the military connections between the Mexican War and Civil War, since virtually every important commander in the Civil War-including Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Grant, McClellan, and Longstreet-gained his introduction to combat in Mexico. These connections are enormously significant to the way in which these generals waged war, since it was in the Mexican War that they learned their trade. Crisis in the Southwest provides readers with a clear understandin
Description : Scholars contributing to this volume consider topics ranging from the effects of the Mexican Revolution on Tejano and African American communities to its impact on Texas' economy and agriculture. Other essays consider the ways that Mexican Americans north of the border affected the course of the revolution itself. .
Description : Drawing on a rich, interdisciplinary collection of U.S. and Mexican sources, this volume explores the conflict that redrew the boundaries of the North American continent in the nineteenth century. Among the many period texts included here are letters from U.S. and Mexican soldiers, governmental proclamations, songs, caricatures, poetry, and newspaper articles. An Introduction, a chronology, maps, and suggestions for further reading are also included.