Understanding Enzymes

Author by : Trevor Palmer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Prentice Hall
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Understanding Enzymes

Author by : Allan Svendsen
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
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Description : Understanding Enzymes: Function, Design, Engineering, and Analysis focuses on the understanding of enzyme function and optimization gained in the past decade, past enzyme function analysis, enzyme engineering, and growing insights from the simulation work and nanotechnology measurement of enzymes in action in vitro or in silico. The book also presents new insights into the mechanistic function and understanding of enzyme reactions, as well as touching upon structural characteristics, including X-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural methods. A major focus of the book is enzyme molecules’ dependency on dynamic and biophysical environmental impacts on their function in ensembles as well as single molecules. A wide range of readers, including academics, professionals, PhD and master’s students, industry experts, and chemists, will immensely benefit from this exclusive book.


Understanding Enzymes

Author by : T. Palmer
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Understanding Enzymes

Author by : Palmer
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Enzymes

Author by : Robert A. Copeland
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Fully updated and expanded-a solid foundation for understandingexperimental enzymology. This practical, up-to-date survey is designed for a broadspectrum of biological and chemical scientists who are beginning todelve into modern enzymology. Enzymes, Second Editionexplains the structural complexities of proteins and enzymes andthe mechanisms by which enzymes perform their catalytic functions.The book provides illustrative examples from the contemporaryliterature to guide the reader through concepts and data analysisprocedures. Clear, well-written descriptions simplify the complexmathematical treatment of enzyme kinetic data, and numerouscitations at the end of each chapter enable the reader to accessthe primary literature and more in-depth treatments of specifictopics. This Second Edition of Enzymes: A Practical Introductionto Structure, Mechanism, and Data Analysis features refinedand expanded coverage of many concepts, while retaining theintroductory nature of the book. Important new featuresinclude: A new chapter on protein-ligand binding equilibria Expanded coverage of chemical mechanisms in enzyme catalysisand experimental measurements of enzyme activity Updated and refined discussions of enzyme inhibitors andmultiple substrate reactions Coverage of current practical applications to the study ofenzymology Supplemented with appendices providing contact information forsuppliers of reagents and equipment for enzyme studies, as well asa survey of useful Internet sites and computer software forenzymatic data analysis, Enzymes, Second Edition isthe ultimate practical guide for scientists and students inbiochemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnical, medicinal, andagricultural/food-related research.


Fundamentals Of Enzyme Kinetics

Author by : Athel Cornish-Bowden
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
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Description : Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics details the rate of reactions catalyzed by different enzymes and the effects of varying the conditions on them. The book includes the basic principles of chemical kinetics, especially the order of a reaction and its rate constraints. The text also gives an introduction to enzyme kinetics - the idea of an enzyme-substrate complex; the Michaelis-Menten equation; the steady state treatment; and the validity of its assumption. Practical considerations, the derivation of steady-state rate equations, inhibitors and activators, and two-substrate reactions are also explained. Problems after the end of each chapter have also been added, as well as their solutions at the end of the book, to test the readers' learning. The text is highly recommended for undergraduate students in biochemistry who wish to study about enzymes or focus completely on enzymology, as most of the mathematics used in this book, which have been explained in detail to remove most barriers of understanding, is elementary.


Activation And Detoxification Enzymes

Author by : Chang-Hwei Chen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
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Description : Humans are exposed to foreign compounds such as drugs, household products and environmental chemicals by swallowing or breathing. Also, food is considered a foreign compound. Such foreign compounds can be non-essential and non-functional to life, and commonly are referred to as xenobiotics. Some xenobiotics are not toxic; however, many of them are potentially toxic or become toxic after conversion to metabolic intermediates. A considerable number of foreign compounds belong to non-polar, lipophilic substances. Lipophilic compounds are not soluble in water. Metabolic conversion of lipophilic foreign compounds to facilitate their removal from the body is essentially carried out by biochemical reactions catalyzed by two classes of metabolizing enzymes, namely, activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes. Activation enzyme-catalyzed functionalization reaction introduces a functional group to a lipophilic compound. Functionalization modifies many foreign compounds to form reactive intermediates capable of interacting with cellular components (proteins, DNA and lipids), leading to a variety of conditions for diseases. Functionalized compounds are further metabolized through detoxification enzyme-catalyzed reactions, which result in an increase in the solubility of parent compounds and an inactivation of metabolic intermediates, thus facilitating their excretion from the body. To minimize the exposure of potentially toxic metabolic intermediates, it is essential to keep them at a minimum level. Extensive investigations have revealed that foreign compound-metabolizing enzymes exhibit genetic polymorphisms. Variations in their activities can produce different results as to the susceptibility to potential toxic effects. Moreover, the expressions of activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes are inducible. A number of chemical compounds are capable of acting as modulators for these two classes of enzymes. These findings have lead to the proposal of modulating metabolizing enzymes as a useful approach for human health benefits. Importantly, many of these chemical compounds are present in human daily diets. There are many advances that have been made in the past decades towards the understanding of functions and implications of activation enzymes and detoxification enzymes. An organized, concise overview is needed for the readers who are initially exposed to this important subject, particularly for students and researchers in the areas of biomedical sciences, biochemistry, nutrition, pharmacology and chemistry. This book is intended to serve this purpose as an introduction to the subject. Furthermore, major topics in the book, excluding catalytic reactions and structural properties, may have interest to other readers who have knowledge of basic sciences and understanding enzyme related information. The book discusses subjects associated with foreign compound metabolizing enzymes with emphasis on biochemical aspects, including lipophilic foreign compounds, catalytic properties, reactive intermediates, biomedical and biochemical effects, genetic polymorphisms, enzyme inducibility, enzyme modulation for health benefits, dietary related enzyme modulators, and structural characteristics of enzyme inducers.


Understanding Enzymes

Author by : Trevor Palmer
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ellis Horwood
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Description : This third edition of Understanding Enzymes has been carefully and thoroughly updated and revised. The content of the book remains the same as for previous editions, providing a clear and lucid picture of the principles of enzymology.


Introduction To Enzyme And Coenzyme Chemistry

Author by : T. D. H. Bugg
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Description : Enzymes are giant macromolecules which catalyse biochemical reactions. They are remarkable in many ways. Their three-dimensional structures are highly complex, yet they are formed by spontaneous folding of a linear polypeptide chain. Their catalytic properties are far more impressive than synthetic catalysts which operate under more extreme conditions. Each enzyme catalyses a single chemical reaction on a particular chemical substrate with very high enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity at rates which approach “catalytic perfection”. Living cells are capable of carrying out a huge repertoire of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, some of which have little or no precedent in organic chemistry. The popular textbook Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry has been thoroughly updated to include information on the most recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action, with additional recent examples from the literature used to illustrate key points. A major new feature is the inclusion of two-colour figures, and the addition of over 40 new figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text, in order to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function. This new edition provides a concise but comprehensive account from the perspective of organic chemistry, what enzymes are, how they work, and how they catalyse many of the major classes of enzymatic reactions, and will continue to prove invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio-organic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.


Genetically Engineered Proteins And Enzymes From Yeasts

Author by : Alan Wiseman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ellis Horwood Limited
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Description : Presents the important concepts and advances on how to successfully use genetic engineering techniques to obtain human proteins and enzymes - an area of vital importance for the production of human proteins for medical purposes.


Understanding Enzyme Catalysis Using Computer Simulation

Author by :
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Description : Enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions with remarkable specificity and efficiency, usually under physiological conditions. Computer simulation is a powerful tool for understanding enzyme catalytic mechanisms, particularly in cases where standard experimental techniques may be of limited utility. Here, we present an overview of the application of computer simulation techniques to understanding enzyme catalytic mechanisms. Examples using quantum chemical methods, as well as combined quantum mechanical/classical mechanical approaches, are provided.


Enzyme Technologies

Author by : Hsiu-Chiung Yang
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
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Total Read : 99
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Description : Sets the stage for advances in drug discovery using the latest enzyme technology Reviewing new and emerging applications of enzyme technology in drug discovery, this book highlights some of the most promising areas of pharmaceutical and biotechnology research. It covers enzyme assay technology, utilization of enzymology for prodrug design, and the application of enzymes as therapeutic agents. Expert reviews highlight how our latest understanding of enzymology is used to develop new practical applications in drug discovery and design. Filled with case studies, Enzyme Technologies: Pluripotent Players in Discovering Therapeutic Agents enables readers to better understand the diverse functions of enzymes and master specific applications in drug discovery research. In addition to small molecule drug discovery, the book explores new developments in enzymes as therapeutic agents for genetic disorders. Section A, Enzymes – Essential Workhorses in Pharmaceutical Research, offers support in selecting the best enzyme targets for drug discovery, designing enzyme inhibitors for therapeutic agents, and evaluating selective enzyme inhibitors. Section B, Enzymes – Indispensable Tools for Improving Druggability, sets forth the principles alongside real-world examples of exploiting specific properties of enzymes to design successful prodrugs. Section C, Enzymes – Powerful Weapons for Correcting Nature's Errors, provides new insights on applying enzymes as therapeutic agents or diagnostic tools to treat genetic disorders. Chapters are contributed by leading experts from around the world. Their contributions are based on a thorough review of the current literature as well as their own research. Reviewing our latest understanding of the nature of enzymes and their role in drug discovery, this book is recommended for researchers in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology as well as for researchers in enzymology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and medicinal chemistry.


Enzymes A Very Short Introduction

Author by : Paul Engel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
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Description : Enzymes are the molecular machines that make life possible. Working as catalysts, teams of enzymes carry out the processes that power the bodies of living things, from making DNA to digesting food. This book explains what enzymes are, what they do, and how they do it, from enzymes inside our cells to those in washing powders and food production.


Enzyme Measurements Increases Understanding Of Effects Of Land Management

Author by : Paul Igboji
Languange : en
Publisher by : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
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Description : Enzymes show extraordinary specificity in catalysing biological reactions. A systematic classification of enzymes has been adopted on the recommendation of the International Enzyme Commission. The new system divides enzymes into six major classes, which are subdivided further into subclasses according to the type of reaction catalysed. For example a recommended name, a systematic name and a classification name for phosphodiesterase is phosphoric diester hydrolase while its classification number is EC 3.1.4. Research into soil enzymes has increased steadily over the last 30 years. Various activities associated with biotic and abiotic components contribute to the overall activity of soil enzymes. According to some scientists an enzyme may be associated physically with proliferating animal, microbial, and plant cells and it may be located in the cytoplasm in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria or attached to the outer surface of cells. They can also be present in non-proliferating cells (for example, microbial spores or protozoan cysts), in entirely dead cells or in cell debris. Other enzymes are present as an extracellular soluble molecule. They can also be temporarily associated in enzyme-substrate complexes, adsorbed to clay minerals or associated with humic colloids. Some of these categories according to experts may represent various stages in the life of an enzyme. An intracellular enzyme may still function after the cell dies and thus it becomes associated with cell debris. It may be released in the aqueous phase and may eventually be adsorbed in an active form by soil colloids. Enzyme-clay and enzyme-organic polymer complexes show remarkable resistance to proteolytic and thermal denaturation. Several methods exist for the measurement of enzyme activities. Experts cautioned about the interpretation of results arising from measurement of soil enzyme activities. According to these authors these measurements represent the maximum potential because the incubation conditions for enzymes assays are chosen to ensure optimum rates of catalysis. Thus the concentration of substrate is in excess and the optimum values of pH and temperature are selected to permit the highest rate of enzyme activity. Also the volume of the reaction mix is such that it allows free diffusion of substrate. Hence the problems arising from the interpretation of measured soil enzyme activity have often led to the conclusion that soil enzyme assays have no meaning in ecological and agricultural terms. Enzymes measurements do answer qualitative questions about specific metabolic processes, and in combination with other measurements (ATP, AEC, CO2 evolution), may increase the understanding of the effect of agrochemicals, cultivation practices, and environmental and climatic factors on the microbiological activity of soil. For example, some scientists discovered that enzyme activity was higher in the uppermost 20 cm of soil in plots tilled by shallow ploughing; this was not the situation in soils tilled by deep ploughing. This book explores in detail enzyme measurements as it affects understanding of land management practices.


Therapeutic Enzymes Function And Clinical Implications

Author by : Nikolaos Labrou
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Nature
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Description : Therapeutic enzymes exhibit fascinating features and opportunities, and represent a significant and promising subcategory of modern biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of several severe diseases. Research and drug developments efforts and the advancements in biotechnology over the past twenty years have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of both rare and common disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of twenty different recombinant enzymes has enabled effective enzyme-replacement therapy. This volume aims to overview these therapeutic enzymes, focusing in particular on more recently approved enzymes produced by recombinant DNA technology. This volume is composed of four sections. Section 1 provides an overview of the production process and biochemical characterization of therapeutic enzymes, while Section 2 focuses upon the engineering strategies and delivery methods of therapeutic enzymes. Section 3 highlights the clinical applications of approved therapeutic enzymes, including aspects on their structure, indications and mechanisms of action. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety and immunogenicity issues and various adverse events of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are discussed. Section 4, provides discussion on the prospective and future developments of new therapeutic enzymes. This book is aimed at academics, researchers and students undertaking advanced undergraduate/postgraduate programs in the biopharmaceutical/biotechnology area who wish to gain a comprehensive understanding of enzyme-based therapeutic molecules.


Enzyme Kinetics And Regulation

Author by : Aaren Bennett
Languange : en
Publisher by : Scientific e-Resources
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Description : We live in the age of science-the human and numerous other living beings' genomes have been sequenced and we are beginning to understand the capacity of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet. A huge number of new genes have been discovered, a significant number of these coding for enzymes of yet obscure capacity. Understanding the kinetic behavior of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From a biotechnological perspective, knowledge of the reactant properties of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based modern processes. Biotransformations are of key importance to the pharmaceutical and sustenance industries, and knowledge of the reactant properties of enzymes, essential. This book is tied in with understanding the principles of enzyme kinetics and knowing how to use mathematical models to describe the reactant capacity of an enzyme. Coverage of the material is in no way, shape or form exhaustive. There exist many books on enzyme kinetics that offer intensive, in-depth treatises of the subject. Intracellular and extracellular physiological cascades are regulated by initiation and hindrance of different enzymes involved in these pathways. Investigating and understanding the mechanism of enzyme hindrance has become the premise of development of pharmaceutical agents. Organically active regular and synthetic inhibitors have been developed and special emphasis has been placed on investigations that define their structure-work relationships in an effort to understand the inception of their natural properties. A powerful complement to the assessment of these agents is the preparation and subsequent examination of key fractional structures, deep-seated auxiliary adjustments and the corresponding unnatural enantiomers of characteristic items. We sincerely hope that this book will represent an element in the tool kit of graduate students in applied science and chemical and biochemical engineering and furthermore of undergraduate students with formal preparing in natural chemistry, biochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical reaction kinetics.


From Enzyme Models To Model Enzymes

Author by : Anthony John Kirby
Languange : en
Publisher by : Royal Society of Chemistry
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Description : This introduction to the exciting area of artificial enzymes is suitable for students and more senior researchers.


Enzymes Catalysis Kinetics And Mechanisms

Author by : N.S. Punekar
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 89
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Description : This enzymology textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students covers the syllabi of most universities where this subject is regularly taught. It focuses on the synchrony between the two broad mechanistic facets of enzymology: the chemical and the kinetic, and also highlights the synergy between enzyme structure and mechanism. Designed for self-study, it explains how to plan enzyme experiments and subsequently analyze the data collected. The book is divided into five major sections: 1] Introduction to enzymes, 2] Practical aspects, 3] Kinetic Mechanisms, 4] Chemical Mechanisms, and 5] Enzymology Frontiers. Individual concepts are treated as stand-alone chapters; readers can explore any single concept with minimal cross-referencing to the rest of the book. Further, complex approaches requiring specialized techniques and involved experimentation (beyond the reach of an average laboratory) are covered in theory with suitable references to guide readers. The book provides students, researchers and academics in the broad area of biology with a sound theoretical and practical knowledge of enzymes. It also caters to those who do not have a practicing enzymologist to teach them the subject.


Understanding Insulin Action

Author by : J. Espinal
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 80
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Description : Every year between three and four hundred papers are published on the topic of insulin action. This extraordinary publication rate prevents any author from includ ing an exhaustive bibliography in any review or book. Perhaps due to this there is no single text that attempts to cover the effects and the mechanism of action of insulin. This book is such an attempt. I intend to present a review of the physiological effects of insulin, the pathology of defects in the action of insulin, and the current views on the mechanism of action of this hormone. I make no apology for the fact that the bibliography will not be extensive and that the amount of experimental detail and data discussed will be kept to a relevant minimum. This book is not intended for the expert in the field, but for the second- or third-year undergraduate and graduate student of medicine, biochemistry, physiology or related disciplines, and will be valuable as a reference source for research workers. The book is presented as a guide, a summary of the ideas and facts; it will present a reader with a foretaste of a fascinating and ever-changing field. I have attempted to be up-to-date with published research work. Any significant contributions to the field not included in the first draft have been added as footnotes. I assume a basic knowledge of the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.


The Molecular Fabric Of Cells

Author by : BIOTOL (Project)
Languange : en
Publisher by :
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Description : Knowledge of the molecules which make up cells not only provides the basis upon which an understanding of cell function may be developed, but also provides the knowledge needed to manipulate and purify chemicals. The text therefore holds an importantand key position in both applied biology and biotechnology.


Recombinant Enzymes From Basic Science To Commercialization

Author by : Azura Amid
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 9
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Description : This edited work presents studies that clarify the basics of producing recombinant enzymes that finally lead to commercialization. It enables researchers to see what is crucial to the commercialization process, from examining the cloning method, using analytical techniques such as calculating the total protein content and enzyme activity, through considering upstream and downstream processes, to the final product. Readers will discover the importance of the cloning method as it influences the upstream and downstream processes and determines the level of success of the recombinant enzyme commercialization processes. We see that the two main factors that are particularly sensitive during the cloning process are the vector and the host. A discussion of analytical techniques is presented followed by studies on important stages during the upstream processes including the process of optimizing the media to get results and high enzyme activity. Downstream processes such as the cell disruption technique, purification and formulation of the final product are then considered. The reader is introduced to software that helps streamline recombinant enzyme production from the upstream to downstream processes, to facilitate the process of up-scaling production. This work includes a case study as tool, to guide understanding of the commercialization process. The work is written for researchers in the field and is especially suited to those who are under pressure to embark on the tough process of commercialization.


Large Scale Quantum Mechanical Enzymology

Author by : Greg Lever
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Total Read : 83
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Description : This work establishes linear-scaling density-functional theory (DFT) as a powerful tool for understanding enzyme catalysis, one that can complement quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and molecular dynamics simulations. The thesis reviews benchmark studies demonstrating techniques capable of simulating entire enzymes at the ab initio quantum-mechanical level of accuracy. DFT has transformed the physical sciences by allowing researchers to perform parameter-free quantum-mechanical calculations to predict a broad range of physical and chemical properties of materials. In principle, similar methods could be applied to biological problems. However, even the simplest biological systems contain many thousands of atoms and are characterized by extremely complex configuration spaces associated with a vast number of degrees of freedom. The development of linear-scaling density-functional codes makes biological molecules accessible to quantum-mechanical calculation, but has yet to resolve the complexity of the phase space. Furthermore, these calculations on systems containing up to 2,000 atoms can capture contributions to the energy that are not accounted for in QM/MM methods (for which the Nobel prize in Chemistry was awarded in 2013) and the results presented here reveal profound shortcomings in said methods.


Chemical Modification Of Enzymes

Author by : Jaime Eyzaguirre
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ellis Horwood
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Total Read : 80
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Chiral Separations By Hplc

Author by : Ante M. Krstulović
Languange : en
Publisher by : Prentice Hall
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 27
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Medical Enzymology

Author by : Tarek H. El-Metwally
Languange : en
Publisher by : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 156
File Size : 42,5 Mb
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Description : Understanding enzyme kinetics and structure-function relationship enables us to explain the metabolic regulation and integration. The information also helps us understanding action of specific toxins, drug metabolism and disease pathogenesis. This enables us to invent suitable interventions to circumvent unfavourable and invest the favourable effects on enzymes and to design more efficient biocatalysts for therapeutic and industrial uses. This book presents all of the fundamental knowledge of enzymology in a very simple way.


Advances In Enzymology And Related Areas Of Molecular Biology

Author by : Eric J. Toone
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
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Description : This book covers important advances in enzymology, explaining the behavior of enzymes and how they can be utilized to develop novel drugs, synthesize known and novel compounds, and understand evolutionary processes. Advances in Enzymology focuses on enzymes, the primary catalysts of life processes. The explanation of the behavior of enzymes can be found via studies of their chemical mechanisms and can be utilized to develop novel drugs, synthesize known and novel compounds, and understand evolutionary processes. The transglutaminases, first described in 1957, are a large, widely-distributed family of enzymes canonically responsible for the amidation/transamidation of protein side chains. The extraordinary diversity of names associated with various enzymatic activities now recognized and aggregated as transglutaminase bears witness to the remarkable diversity of biological roles associated with the activity, including myriad human diseases.