Vermeer s Hat

Vermeer s Hat
Author: Timothy Brook
Publsiher: Profile Books
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2010-07-09
ISBN: 1847652549
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vermeer s Hat Book Excerpt:

In one painting, a Dutch military officer leans toward a laughing girl. In another, a woman at a window weighs pieces of silver. In a third, fruit spills from a porcelain bowl onto a Turkish carpet. The officer's dashing hat is made of beaver fur, which European explorers got from Native Americans in exchange for weapons. Beaver pelts, in turn, financed the voyages of sailors seeking new routes to China. There - with silver mined in Peru - Europeans would purchase, by the thousands, the porcelain so often shown in Dutch paintings of this time. Vermeer's haunting images hint at the stories behind these exquisitely rendered moments. As Timothy Brook shows us in Vermeer's Hat, these pictures, which seem so intimate, actually open doors onto a rapidly expanding world.

Summary of Timothy Brook s Vermeer s Hat

Summary of Timothy Brook s Vermeer s Hat
Author: Everest Media,
Publsiher: Everest Media LLC
Total Pages: 30
Release: 2022-06-30T22:59:00Z
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Summary of Timothy Brook s Vermeer s Hat Book Excerpt:

Please note: This is a companion version & not the original book. Sample Book Insights: #1 I was 20 years old when I bought a bicycle in Amsterdam and cycled southwest across the Low Countries on what would be the final leg of a journey that took me from Dubrovnik on the Adriatic to Ben Nevis in Scotland. I was on my second day out when the light began to fade and the drizzle turned the road under my tires slick. #2 The churches of Delft are decorated with paintings of the interiors that date from the seventeenth century, when the town was Protestant and the Catholic religion was being purged. Vermeer was a headman of the artisans’ guild of St. Luke, and he enjoyed a position of honor in the town militia. #3 Vermeer’s paintings are the only way to step into his world. However, none of them remain in Delft. They were sold after he died or carted to auctions elsewhere, and now are dispersed among seventeen different galleries. #4 The story of Delft is similar to that of Shanghai, if we consider the two cities’ histories from a different perspective. Delft was built on land that had once been under the ocean, and it depended on water sluices to drain the bogs on which it rests.

Vermeer s Hat

Vermeer s Hat
Author: Timothy Brook
Publsiher: Profile Books(GB)
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2009
ISBN: 9781846681202
Category: Civilization, Modern
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vermeer s Hat Book Excerpt:

In one painting, a Dutch military officer leans toward a laughing girl. In another, a woman at a window weighs pieces of silver. In a third, fruit spills from a porcelain bowl onto a Turkish carpet. The officer's dashing hat is made of beaver fur, which European explorers got from Native Americans in exchange for weapons. Beaver pelts, in turn, financed the voyages of sailors seeking new routes to China. There - with silver mined in Peru - Europeans would purchase, by the thousands, the porcelain so often shown in Dutch paintings of this time. Vermeer's haunting images hint at the stories behind these exquisitely rendered moments. As Timothy Brook shows us in Vermeer's Hat, these pictures, which seem so intimate, actually open doors onto a rapidly expanding world.

The United States Army in China 1900 1938

The United States Army in China  1900      1938
Author: Alfred Emile Cornebise
Publsiher: McFarland
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2015-08-07
ISBN: 1476619050
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The United States Army in China 1900 1938 Book Excerpt:

A study of U.S.–Chinese relations involving the U.S. Army, this work focuses at the personnel level on the Army’s service in China. While studies have been published of the U.S. Marines’ and U.S. Navy’s involvement in China, little attention has been given the Army’s missions in this theater. Operations in China were a key part of the history and traditions of the 9th, 14th, 15th and 31st Regiments, whose coats of arms still feature dragons as symbols of their service there. Many who served in the 15th in China went on to impressive careers as general officers, prompting one soldier to ask “what other infantry regiment of those days can boast of such an alumni list?” Also covered is the 31st Regiments’ involvement in Shanghai during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the prelude of the coming of World War II in Asia.

Vermeer s Family Secrets

Vermeer s Family Secrets
Author: Benjamin Binstock
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2013-03-07
ISBN: 1136087060
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vermeer s Family Secrets Book Excerpt:

Johannes Vermeer, one of the greatest Dutch painters and for some the single greatest painter of all, produced a remarkably small corpus of work. In Vermeer's Family Secrets, Benjamin Binstock revolutionizes how we think about Vermeer's work and life. Vermeer, The Sphinx of Delft, is famously a mystery in art: despite the common claim that little is known of his biography, there is actually an abundance of fascinating information about Vermeer’s life that Binstock brings to bear on Vermeer’s art for the first time; he also offers new interpretations of several key documents pertaining to Vermeer that have been misunderstood. Lavishly illustrated with more than 180 black and white images and more than sixty color plates, the book also includes a remarkable color two-page spread that presents the entirety of Vermeer's oeuvre arranged in chronological order in 1/20 scale, demonstrating his gradual formal and conceptual development. No book on Vermeer has ever done this kind of visual comparison of his complete output. Like Poe's purloined letter, Vermeer's secrets are sometimes out in the open where everyone can see them. Benjamin Binstock shows us where to look. Piecing together evidence, the tools of art history, and his own intuitive skills, he gives us for the first time a history of Vermeer's work in light of Vermeer's life. On almost every page of Vermeer's Family Secrets, there is a perception or an adjustment that rethinks what we know about Vermeer, his oeuvre, Dutch painting, and Western Art. Perhaps the most arresting revelation of Vermeer's Family Secrets is the final one: in response to inconsistencies in technique, materials, and artistic level, Binstock posits that several of the paintings accepted as canonical works by Vermeer, are in fact not by Vermeer at all but by his eldest daughter, Maria. How he argues this is one of the book's many pleasures.

Images on a Mission in Early Modern Kongo and Angola

Images on a Mission in Early Modern Kongo and Angola
Author: Cécile Fromont
Publsiher: Penn State Press
Total Pages: 337
Release: 2022-04-25
ISBN: 0271094109
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Images on a Mission in Early Modern Kongo and Angola Book Excerpt:

Early modern central Africa comes to life in an extraordinary atlas of vivid watercolors and drawings that Italian Capuchin Franciscans, veterans of Kongo and Angola missions, composed between 1650 and 1750 for the training of future missionaries. These “practical guides” present the intricacies of the natural, social, and religious environment of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century west-central Africa and outline the primarily visual catechization methods the friars devised for the region. Images on a Mission in Early Modern Kongo and Angola brings this overlooked visual corpus to public and scholarly attention. This beautifully illustrated book includes full-color reproductions of all the images in the atlas, in conjunction with rarely seen related material gathered from collections and archives around the world. Taking a bold new approach to the study of early modern global interactions, art historian Cécile Fromont demonstrates how visual creations such as the Capuchin vignettes, though European in form and crafstmanship, emerged not from a single perspective but rather from cross-cultural interaction. Fromont models a fresh way to think about images created across cultures, highlighting the formative role that cultural encounter itself played in their conception, execution, and modes of operation. Centering Africa and Africans, and with ramifications on four continents, Fromont’s decolonial history profoundly transforms our understanding of the early modern world. It will be of substantial interest to specialists in early modern studies, art history, and religion.

Traces of Vermeer

Traces of Vermeer
Author: Jane Jelley
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2017-07-14
ISBN: 0192506900
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Traces of Vermeer Book Excerpt:

Johannes Vermeer's luminous paintings are loved and admired around the world, yet we do not understand how they were made. We see sunlit spaces; the glimmer of satin, silver, and linen; we see the softness of a hand on a lute string or letter. We recognise the distilled impression of a moment of time; and we feel it to be real. We might hope for some answers from the experts, but they are confounded too. Even with the modern technology available, they do not know why there is an absence of any preliminary drawing; why there are shifts in focus; and why his pictures are unusually blurred. Some wonder if he might possibly have used a camera obscura to capture what he saw before him. The few traces Vermeer has left behind tell us little: there are no letters or diaries; and no reports of him at work. Jane Jelley has taken a new path in this detective story. A painter herself, she has worked with the materials of his time: the cochineal insect and lapis lazuli; the sheep bones, soot, earth and rust. She shows us how painters made their pictures layer by layer; she investigates old secrets; and hears travellers' tales. She explores how Vermeer could have used a lens in the creation of his masterpieces. The clues were there all along. After all this time, now we can unlock the studio door, and catch a glimpse of Vermeer inside, painting light.

Globalizing Literary Genres

Globalizing Literary Genres
Author: Jernej Habjan,Fabienne Imlinger
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2015-10-14
ISBN: 1317483421
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Globalizing Literary Genres Book Excerpt:

Focused on the relation between processes of globalization and literary genres, this volume intervenes in the prevalent notions of globalization, literary history, genre, and the novel. Using both close reading and world history, both literary criticism and political theory, the book is a timely intervention in the debates about world, postcolonial, and transnational literature as they have been intensified by critical globalization studies, world-systems analysis, Bourdieuan sociology, and cosmopolitanism studies. It contends that globalization, far from starting in recent decades, has a long and complex history, not unlike the history of literature itself, meaning that when we speak of globalization and literature, we in effect invoke the entire history of literature. Essays examine literary genres in relation to broader historical processes, connecting the present state of globalization to such key world-historic events as the early modern geographical and scientific explorations, the Enlightenment, the expansions of modernity in the long nineteenth and twentieth centuries, postmodernity and postcoloniality, and contemporary counter-hegemonic movements. The book offers innovative readings of the pastoral from Saint-Pierre to Carpentier; the novel in Kant and Wieland, and in Diderot and Marx; travel writing from Verne to Cortázar; sports writing in James and Kahn; entrelacement in Bolaño, Ghosh, and Soderbergh; and also the Mozambican ghost story, Indian genre fiction, "fake" autobiographies, Sephardic "language memoirs," the postcolonial Gothic, Irish "chick lit," and counter-hegemonic novels. Making important theoretical contributions to a renewed discussion about genre, especially genres of narrative fiction, this volume addresses global studies, the history of the novel, and debates over periodization and nationalism in literary history.

The Age of Trade

The Age of Trade
Author: Arturo Giraldez
Publsiher: Rowman & Littlefield
Total Pages: 271
Release: 2015-03-19
ISBN: 144224352X
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Age of Trade Book Excerpt:

This groundbreaking book presents the first full history of the Manila galleons, which marked the true beginning of a global economy. Arturo Giraldez, the world’s leading scholar of the galleons, traces the rise of the maritime route, which began with the founding of the city of Manila in 1571 and ended in 1815 when the last galleon left the port of Acapulco in New Spain (Mexico) for the Philippines, establishing a permanent connection between the Spanish empire in America with Asian countries, most importantly China, the main supplier of commodities during that era. Throughout the two-and-a-half-century history of the Manila galleons, the strategic commodity fuelling global networks was always silver. Giraldez shows how this most important of precious metals shaped world history, with influences that stretch to the present.

The Light Theatre Opened to Universe II

The Light Theatre Opened to Universe  II
Author: Kazuo Ueno
Publsiher: Xlibris Corporation
Total Pages: 91
Release: 2013
ISBN: 1483663914
Category: Philosophy
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Light Theatre Opened to Universe II Book Excerpt:

How was seventeenth-century Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer's idea was influenced by Christian Huygens? Perhaps in the sense of subconsciousness and eventually how it was realized by the method called Mitate (look alike) in his painting as Heaven and Earth. His painting represents the universe itself.

Worldly Shakespeare

Worldly Shakespeare
Author: Wilson Richard Wilson
Publsiher: Edinburgh University Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2016-02-02
ISBN: 1474411339
Category: Literary Criticism
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Worldly Shakespeare Book Excerpt:

In Worldly Shakespeare Richard Wilson proposes that the universalism proclaimed in the name of Shakespeare's playhouse was tempered by his own worldliness, the performative idea that runs through his plays, that if 'All the world's a stage', then 'all the men and women in it' are 'merely players'. Situating this playacting in the context of current concerns about the difference between globalization and mondialisation, the book considers how this drama offers itself as a model for a planet governed not according to universal toleration, but the right to offend: 'But with good will'. For when he asks us to think we 'have but slumbered' throughout his offensive plays, Wilson suggests, Shakespeare is presenting a drama without catharsis, which anticipates post-structuralist thinkers like Jacques Rancire and Slavoj A iA ek, who insist the essence of democracy is dissent, and 'the presence of two worlds in one'.Living out his scenario of the guest who destroys the host, by welcoming the religious terrorist, paranoid queen, veiled woman, papist diehard, or puritan fundamentalist into his play-world, Worldly Shakespeare concludes, the dramatist instead provides a pretext for our globalized communities in a time of Facebook and fatwa, as we also come to depend on the right to offend 'with our good will'.

Global Entanglements of a Man Who Never Traveled

Global Entanglements of a Man Who Never Traveled
Author: Dominic Sachsenmaier
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2018-05-29
ISBN: 0231547315
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Entanglements of a Man Who Never Traveled Book Excerpt:

Born into a low-level literati family in the port city of Ningbo, the seventeenth-century Chinese Christian convert Zhu Zongyuan likely never left his home province. Yet Zhu nonetheless led a remarkably globally connected life. His relations with the outside world, ranging from scholarly activities to involvement with globalizing Catholicism, put him in contact with a complex and contradictory set of foreign and domestic forces. In Global Entanglements of a Man Who Never Traveled, Dominic Sachsenmaier explores the mid-seventeenth-century world and the worldwide flows of ideas through the lens of Zhu‘s life, combining the local, regional, and global. Taking particular aspects of Zhu‘s multiple belongings as a starting point, Sachsenmaier analyzes the contexts that framed his worlds as he balanced a local life and his border-crossing faith. At the local level, the book pays attention to the intellectual, political, and social environments of late Ming and early Qing society, including Confucian learning and the Manchu conquest, questioning the role of ethnic and religious identities. At the global level, it considers how individuals like Zhu were situated within the history of organizations and power structures such as the Catholic Church and early modern empires amid larger transformations and encounters. A strikingly original work, this book is a major contribution to East Asian, transnational, and global history, with important implications for historical approaches and methodologies.

Lost Colony

Lost Colony
Author: Tonio Andrade
Publsiher: Princeton University Press
Total Pages: 447
Release: 2013-08-04
ISBN: 0691159572
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lost Colony Book Excerpt:

How a Chinese pirate defeated European colonialists and won Taiwan during the seventeenth century During the seventeenth century, Holland created the world's most dynamic colonial empire, outcompeting the British and capturing Spanish and Portuguese colonies. Yet, in the Sino-Dutch War—Europe's first war with China—the Dutch met their match in a colorful Chinese warlord named Koxinga. Part samurai, part pirate, he led his generals to victory over the Dutch and captured one of their largest and richest colonies—Taiwan. How did he do it? Examining the strengths and weaknesses of European and Chinese military techniques during the period, Lost Colony provides a balanced new perspective on long-held assumptions about Western power, Chinese might, and the nature of war. It has traditionally been asserted that Europeans of the era possessed more advanced science, technology, and political structures than their Eastern counterparts, but historians have recently contested this view, arguing that many parts of Asia developed on pace with Europe until 1800. While Lost Colony shows that the Dutch did indeed possess a technological edge thanks to the Renaissance fort and the broadside sailing ship, that edge was neutralized by the formidable Chinese military leadership. Thanks to a rich heritage of ancient war wisdom, Koxinga and his generals outfoxed the Dutch at every turn. Exploring a period when the military balance between Europe and China was closer than at any other point in modern history, Lost Colony reassesses an important chapter in world history and offers valuable and surprising lessons for contemporary times.

Christendom Destroyed

Christendom Destroyed
Author: Mark Greengrass
Publsiher: Penguin UK
Total Pages: 784
Release: 2014-07-03
ISBN: 0241005965
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Christendom Destroyed Book Excerpt:

Mark Greengrass's gripping, major, original account of Europe in an era of tumultuous change This latest addition to the landmark Penguin History of Europe series is a fascinating study of 16th and 17th century Europe and the fundamental changes which led to the collapse of Christendom and established the geographical and political frameworks of Western Europe as we know it. From peasants to princes, no one was untouched by the spiritual and intellectual upheaval of this era. Martin Luther's challenge to church authority forced Christians to examine their beliefs in ways that shook the foundations of their religion. The subsequent divisions, fed by dynastic rivalries and military changes, fundamentally altered the relations between ruler and ruled. Geographical and scientific discoveries challenged the unity of Christendom as a belief-community. Europe, with all its divisions, emerged instead as a geographical projection. It was reflected in the mirror of America, and refracted by the eclipse of Crusade in ambiguous relationships with the Ottomans and Orthodox Christianity. Chronicling these dramatic changes, Thomas More, Shakespeare, Montaigne and Cervantes created works which continue to resonate with us. Christendom Destroyed is a rich tapestry that fosters a deeper understanding of Europe's identity today.

Tuscany in the Age of Empire

Tuscany in the Age of Empire
Author: Brian Brege
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2021-07-13
ISBN: 0674251342
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Tuscany in the Age of Empire Book Excerpt:

A new history explores how one of Renaissance ItalyÕs leading cities maintained its influence in an era of global exploration, trade, and empire. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was not an imperial power, but it did harbor global ambitions. After abortive attempts at overseas colonization and direct commercial expansion, as Brian Brege shows, Tuscany followed a different path, one that allowed it to participate in EuropeÕs new age of empire without establishing an empire of its own. The first history of its kind, Tuscany in the Age of Empire offers a fresh appraisal of one of the foremost cities of the Italian Renaissance, as it sought knowledge, fortune, and power throughout Asia, the Americas, and beyond. How did Tuscany, which could not compete directly with the growing empires of other European states, establish a global presence? First, Brege shows, Tuscany partnered with larger European powers. The duchy sought to obtain trade rights within their empires and even manage portions of other statesÕ overseas territories. Second, Tuscans invested in cultural, intellectual, and commercial institutions at home, which attracted the knowledge and wealth generated by EuropeÕs imperial expansions. Finally, Tuscans built effective coalitions with other regional powers in the Mediterranean and the Islamic world, which secured the duchyÕs access to global products and empowered the Tuscan monarchy in foreign affairs. These strategies allowed Tuscany to punch well above its weight in a world where power was equated with the sort of imperial possessions it lacked. By finding areas of common interest with stronger neighbors and forming alliances with other marginal polities, a small state was able to protect its own security while carving out a space as a diplomatic and intellectual hub in a globalizing Europe.

Vermeer and the Delft School

Vermeer and the Delft School
Author: Walter A. Liedtke,Michiel Plomp,Axel Rüger,Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.),National Gallery (Great Britain)
Publsiher: Metropolitan Museum of Art
Total Pages: 642
Release: 2001
ISBN: 0870999737
Category: Art, Dutch
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vermeer and the Delft School Book Excerpt:

Walter Liedtke, curator of European paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, has assembled a splendid catalog of Vermeer and his artistic milieu. Seven lengthy, well-illustrated chapters (Liedtke wrote five, Dutch art historians Michiel Plomp and Marten Jan Bok wrote the others) describe life in the city of Delft; the painters Carel Fabritius, Leonart Bramer, and others who preceded Vermeer; the careers of Vermeer and De Hooch; the making of drawings and prints in 17th-century Delft; and the collecting of art in the same period. The catalog follows: each painting, print, and drawing accompanied by a lengthy catalog essay. Oversize: 12.25x9.75". c. Book News Inc.

New Netherland Connections

New Netherland Connections
Author: Susanah Shaw Romney
Publsiher: UNC Press Books
Total Pages: 337
Release: 2014
ISBN: 1469614251
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Netherland Connections Book Excerpt:

New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America

Present

Present
Author: Marietta de Vries
Publsiher: 010 Publishers
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2010
ISBN: 9064507082
Category: Art
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Present Book Excerpt:

"Represent Royal Tichelaar Makkum describes the last fifteen years of the long history of this Frisian earthenware factory and the Netherlands’ oldest company. Under the impassioned leadership of director Jan Tichelaar, Royal Tichelaar Makkum is undergoing a number of decisive changes. By combining century-old craftsmanship with innovative projects by designers and architects, he has succeeded in broadening the company’s activities to include contemporary products in the fields of architecture and design. The production of traditional earthenware, one of Holland’s most famous national products, will continue alongside these new advancements. In this way, new products within both disciplines are being developed while traditional craftsmanship undergoes unique innovations. Represent Royal Tichelaar Makkum outlines the context which gave rise to these developments and gives a picture of the many inspiring products it has generated."--Back cover.

Eye of the Beholder Johannes Vermeer Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and the Reinvention of Seeing

Eye of the Beholder  Johannes Vermeer  Antoni van Leeuwenhoek  and the Reinvention of Seeing
Author: Laura J. Snyder
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2015-03-16
ISBN: 0393246523
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eye of the Beholder Johannes Vermeer Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and the Reinvention of Seeing Book Excerpt:

The remarkable story of how an artist and a scientist in seventeenth-century Holland transformed the way we see the world. On a summer day in 1674, in the small Dutch city of Delft, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek—a cloth salesman, local bureaucrat, and self-taught natural philosopher—gazed through a tiny lens set into a brass holder and discovered a never-before imagined world of microscopic life. At the same time, in a nearby attic, the painter Johannes Vermeer was using another optical device, a camera obscura, to experiment with light and create the most luminous pictures ever beheld. “See for yourself!” was the clarion call of the 1600s. Scientists peered at nature through microscopes and telescopes, making the discoveries in astronomy, physics, chemistry, and anatomy that ignited the Scientific Revolution. Artists investigated nature with lenses, mirrors, and camera obscuras, creating extraordinarily detailed paintings of flowers and insects, and scenes filled with realistic effects of light, shadow, and color. By extending the reach of sight the new optical instruments prompted the realization that there is more than meets the eye. But they also raised questions about how we see and what it means to see. In answering these questions, scientists and artists in Delft changed how we perceive the world. In Eye of the Beholder, Laura J. Snyder transports us to the streets, inns, and guildhalls of seventeenth-century Holland, where artists and scientists gathered, and to their studios and laboratories, where they mixed paints and prepared canvases, ground and polished lenses, examined and dissected insects and other animals, and invented the modern notion of seeing. With charm and narrative flair Snyder brings Vermeer and Van Leeuwenhoek—and the men and women around them—vividly to life. The story of these two geniuses and the transformation they engendered shows us why we see the world—and our place within it—as we do today. Eye of the Beholder was named "A Best Art Book of the Year" by Christie's and "A Best Read of the Year" by New Scientist in 2015.

1493

1493
Author: Charles C. Mann
Publsiher: Vintage
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2011-08-09
ISBN: 0307596729
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

1493 Book Excerpt:

From the author of 1491—the best-selling study of the pre-Columbian Americas—a deeply engaging new history of the most momentous biological event since the death of the dinosaurs. More than 200 million years ago, geological forces split apart the continents. Isolated from each other, the two halves of the world developed radically different suites of plants and animals. When Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas, he ended that separation at a stroke. Driven by the economic goal of establishing trade with China, he accidentally set off an ecological convulsion as European vessels carried thousands of species to new homes across the oceans. The Columbian Exchange, as researchers call it, is the reason there are tomatoes in Italy, oranges in Florida, chocolates in Switzerland, and chili peppers in Thailand. More important, creatures the colonists knew nothing about hitched along for the ride. Earthworms, mosquitoes, and cockroaches; honeybees, dandelions, and African grasses; bacteria, fungi, and viruses; rats of every description—all of them rushed like eager tourists into lands that had never seen their like before, changing lives and landscapes across the planet. Eight decades after Columbus, a Spaniard named Legazpi succeeded where Columbus had failed. He sailed west to establish continual trade with China, then the richest, most powerful country in the world. In Manila, a city Legazpi founded, silver from the Americas, mined by African and Indian slaves, was sold to Asians in return for silk for Europeans. It was the first time that goods and people from every corner of the globe were connected in a single worldwide exchange. Much as Columbus created a new world biologically, Legazpi and the Spanish empire he served created a new world economically. As Charles C. Mann shows, the Columbian Exchange underlies much of subsequent human history. Presenting the latest research by ecologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians, Mann shows how the creation of this worldwide network of ecological and economic exchange fostered the rise of Europe, devastated imperial China, convulsed Africa, and for two centuries made Mexico City—where Asia, Europe, and the new frontier of the Americas dynamically interacted—the center of the world. In such encounters, he uncovers the germ of today’s fiercest political disputes, from immigration to trade policy to culture wars. In 1493, Charles Mann gives us an eye-opening scientific interpretation of our past, unequaled in its authority and fascination.