War And Press Freedom

Author by : Jeffery A. Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 99
Total Download : 928
File Size : 45,5 Mb
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Description : War and Press Freedom: The Problem of Prerogative Power is a groundbreaking and provocative study of one of the most perplexing civil liberties issues in American history: What authority does or should the government have to control press coverage and commentary in wartime? First Amendment scholar Jeffery A. Smith shows convincingly that no such extraordinary power exists under the Constitution, and that officials have had to rely on claiming the existence of an autocratic "higher law" of survival. Smith carefully surveys the development of statutory restrictions and military regulations for the news media from the ratification of the Bill of Rights in 1791 through the Gulf War of 1991. He concludes that the armed forces can justify refusal to divulge a narrow range of defense secrets, but that imposing other restrictions is unwise, unnecessary, and unconstitutional. In any event, as electronic communication becomes almost impossible to constrain, soldiers and journalists must learn how to respect each other's obligations in a democratic system.


The Troubles Of Journalism

Author by : William A. Hachten
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 614
File Size : 53,6 Mb
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Description : This book looks at criticisms of the journalism profession and evaluates many of the changes in journalism--both positive and negative. In addition, it suggests what the many changes mean for this nation and indeed for the world at large, as American journalism--its methods and standards--has markedly influenced the way many millions overseas receive news and view their world. Based on author William Hachten's 50-year involvement with newspapers and journalism education, The Troubles of Journalism serves as a realistic examination of the profession, and is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate courses in journalism and media criticism. Since the previous edition of The Troubles of Journalism, many significant challenges have occurred in the media: the events of September 11, the war on terrorism, mergers and consolidation of media ownership, new concerns about press credibility, the expanding and controversial role of cable news channels, the growing impact role of news and comment on the Internet, and continuing globalization and controversy over the role of American media in international communications. To do justice to these recent "troubles" of the news media, important additions and modifications have been made in every chapter of this Third Edition.


American Constitutional Law

Author by : Donald P. Kommers
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 44
Total Download : 908
File Size : 41,6 Mb
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Description : Designed for an undergraduate course in US constitutional law, the casebook takes a liberal arts approach, tracing constitutional doctrine and policy back to their foundation in social, moral, and political theory, and prompting students to engage the great questions of political life addressed by the Constitution and its interpretation. Opinions of the US Supreme Court constitute the core of the documents. The first edition was published in 1998; the second adds and updates topics. Annotation : 2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).


Freedom Of The Press

Author by : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 468
File Size : 52,9 Mb
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Description :


Freedom Of Speech And The Press

Author by : Ian C. Friedman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Infobase Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 893
File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Description : American democracy owes much to the rights guaranteed to individuals in the U.S. Constitution and specifically in its first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights. Each book in the new six-volume American Rights set provides the history of a specific right or rights, from the right to vote to the right to bear arms. The volumes begin with brief colonial history, discussing the war fought by American Revolutionaries to gain independence from Great Britain - and their opportunity to decide what rights every American should possess. Coverage also includes later and ongoing struggles by groups such as women and people of color to gain these rights - both in law and in practice. Students will learn to appreciate the value of these rights by reading of the battles fought to secure them and, in some cases, by learning of their relative rarity around the world. Graphs, maps, photographs, and box features enhance the lively and accessible narrative, calling out important details and bringing this exciting material to life. Providing a wealth of information, American Rights is a thought-provoking, must-have set perfect for the young readers of today.


Attacks On The Press

Author by : Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 918
File Size : 50,8 Mb
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Description : The definitive, comprehensive assessment of global press freedom Attacks on the Press is the definitive guide to the state of press freedom around the globe, with the 2016 edition focusing on gender-based threats to journalists and the media. Compiled by the Committee to Protect Journalists, this book contains a collection of analytical reports by freelance journalists and other experts who have an inside view of global media conditions and anti-press violations related to gender, including digital harassment, discrimination, restricted access to newsmakers, imprisonment, and physical and sexual attacks. It also provides guidance for dealing with such threats and restrictions, as well as potential solutions, including safety measures and direct advocacy with the diplomatic community on behalf of threatened journalists around the world, in keeping with CPJ's mission. Freedom of the press is essential to human rights, and encourages a strong civil society with healthy and sustainable social, political, and economic development. This guide publicly reveals the latest abuses against the press, providing a comprehensive guide to international press freedom, including: A survey of the current state of journalist safety around the globe An examination of repression tactics based on gender A compendium of countries seeking to undermine the freedom of the press Accounts of the latest censorship tactics journalists face every day Those who seek to expose injustices and spread information become easy targets under repressive regimes, during civil war, and in myriad other conditions that empower those who threaten freedom in any form. Attacks on the Press is intended to expose such abuses, particularly those that relate to gender, through comprehensive research and first-hand accounts, and to provide potential solutions.


Journalism In The Fallen Confederacy

Author by : Debra Reddin van Tuyll
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 56
Total Download : 206
File Size : 40,8 Mb
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Description : During the American Civil War, several newspapers remained Confederate sympathizers despite their locations being occupied by Union troops. Examining these papers, the authors explore what methods of suppression occupiers used, how occupation influenced the editorial and business sides of the press, and how occupation impacted freedom of the press.


Defining And Discussing Freedom Of The Press

Author by : Christy Mihaly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Carson-Dellosa Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
Total Download : 399
File Size : 41,5 Mb
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Description : Recent events have shone a bright spotlight on the news media, including “fake news,” internet trolls, and attacks on journalists. This book describes the history of the right to freedom of the press, how the constitution protects reporters, and what happens in places where the press is not free. The Shaping the Debate series is designed to help readers in grades 5-9 understand social issues from multiple viewpoints and to articulate their own opinions. Each book in this series explains the title issue and how it affects people and policy; introduces people and movements involved in bringing awareness to the issue; highlights applicable major U.S. laws, judicial decisions, and progressive to moderate to conservative viewpoints; and touches on global implications of activism, awareness, and policy change


Media Studies Journal

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 315
File Size : 41,7 Mb
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The Broken Constitution

Author by : Noah Feldman
Languange : en
Publisher by : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 160
File Size : 40,6 Mb
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Description : An innovative account of Abraham Lincoln, constitutional thinker and doer Abraham Lincoln is justly revered for his brilliance, compassion, humor, and rededication of the United States to achieving liberty and justice for all. He led the nation into a bloody civil war to uphold the system of government established by the US Constitution—a system he regarded as the “last best hope of mankind.” But how did Lincoln understand the Constitution? In this groundbreaking study, Noah Feldman argues that Lincoln deliberately and recurrently violated the United States’ founding arrangements. When he came to power, it was widely believed that the federal government could not use armed force to prevent a state from seceding. It was also assumed that basic civil liberties could be suspended in a rebellion by Congress but not by the president, and that the federal government had no authority over slavery in states where it existed. As president, Lincoln broke decisively with all these precedents, and effectively rewrote the Constitution’s place in the American system. Before the Civil War, the Constitution was best understood as a compromise pact—a rough and ready deal between states that allowed the Union to form and function. After Lincoln, the Constitution came to be seen as a sacred text—a transcendent statement of the nation’s highest ideals. The Broken Constitution is the first book to tell the story of how Lincoln broke the Constitution in order to remake it. To do so, it offers a riveting narrative of his constitutional choices and how he made them—and places Lincoln in the rich context of thinking of the time, from African American abolitionists to Lincoln’s Republican rivals and Secessionist ideologues. Includes 8 Pages of Black-and-White Illustrations


Samuel Medary The Crisis

Author by : Reed Williams Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 85
Total Download : 493
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : This political biography tells the story of Samuel Medary, a controversial journalist and political activist who published a Peace Democrat (Copperhead) newspaper - the Crisis - in Columbus, Ohio, during the Civil War. Medary, a staunch supporter of states' rights and civil liberties, opposed the Union war effort and fought against government attempts to suppress the peace movement. In his editorials he repeatedly encouraged civilian resistance to President Lincoln's policies, including conscription, martial law, and heavy taxation. Samuel Medary and the "Crisis" is engaging reading for scholars and students of the history of journalism, the Civil War, Ohio and U.S. history, and the Constitution.


Your Country Our War

Author by : Katherine A. Brown
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 92
Total Download : 280
File Size : 49,6 Mb
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Description : Journalists are actors in international relations, mediating communications between governments and publics, but also between the administrations of different countries. American and foreign officials simultaneously consume the work of U.S. journalists and use it in their own thinking about how to conduct their work. As such, journalists play an unofficial diplomatic role. However, the U.S. news media largely amplifies American power. Instead of stimulating greater understanding, the U.S. elite, mainstream press can often widen mistrust as they promote an American worldview and, with the exception of some outliers, reduce the world into a tight security frame in which the U.S. is the hegemon. This has been the case in Afghanistan since 2001, particularly as emerging Afghan journalists have relied significantly on U.S. and other Western news outlets to report events within their government and their country. Based on eight years of interviews in Kabul, Washington, and New York, Your Country, Our War demonstrates how news has intersected with international politics during the War in Afghanistan and shows the global power and reach of the U.S. news media, especially within the context of the post-9/11 era. It reviews the trajectory of the U.S. news narrative about Afghanistan and America's never-ending war, and the rise of Afghan journalism, from 2001 to 2017. The book also examines the impact of the American news media inside a war theater. It examines how U.S. journalists affected the U.S.-Afghan relationship and chronicles their contribution to the rapid development of a community of Afghan journalists who grappled daily with how to define themselves and their country during a tumultuous and uneven transition from fundamentalist to democratic rule. Providing rich detail about the U.S.-Afghan relationship, especially former President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai's convictions about the role of the Western press, we begin to understand how journalists are not merely observers to a story; they are participants in it.


An Indispensable Liberty

Author by : Mary M. Cronin
Languange : en
Publisher by : SIU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 47
Total Download : 135
File Size : 55,9 Mb
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Description : "This collection of eleven essays examines nineteenth-century legal and extralegal attempts to restrict freedom of speech and the press as well as the efforts of others to push back against those restrictions"--


Freedom Of Expression In The Marketplace Of Ideas

Author by : Douglas M. Fraleigh
Languange : en
Publisher by : SAGE Publications
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 94
Total Download : 863
File Size : 46,6 Mb
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Description : A comprehensive guide to effective participation in the public debate about our most indispensable right: freedom of expression Encouraging readers to think critically about freedom of speech and expression and the diverse critical perspectives that challenge the existing state of the law, this text provides a comprehensive analysis of the historical and legal contexts of the First Amendment, from its early foundations all the way to censorship on the Internet. Throughout the book, authors Douglas M. Fraleigh and Joseph S. Tuman use the "Marketplace of Ideas" metaphor to help readers visualize a world where the exchange of ideas is relatively unrestrained and self-monitored. The text provides students with the opportunity to read significant excerpts of landmark decisions and to think critically about the issues and controversies raised in these cases. Students will appreciate the treatment of contemporary issues, including free speech in a post-9/11 world, free expression in cyberspace, and First Amendment rights on college campuses. Features: Demystifies free speech law, encouraging readers to grapple with the complexities of significant ethical and legal issues Sparks student interest in "big picture" issues while simultaneously covering important foundational material, including incitement, fighting words, true threats, obscenity, indecency, child pornography, hate speech, time place and manner restrictions, symbolic expression, restrictions on the Internet, and terrorism. Includes significant excerpts from landmark freedom of expression cases, including concurring or dissenting opinions where applicable, to help students become active learners of free expression rights Offers critical analysis and alternative perspectives on free expression doctrines to demonstrate that existing doctrine is not necessarily ideal or immutable Includes a global perspective on free expression including a chapter on international and comparative perspectives that helps students see how the values of different cultures influence judicial decisions


Reporting The War

Author by : John Byrne Cooke
Languange : en
Publisher by : Palgrave Macmillan
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 55
Total Download : 909
File Size : 50,6 Mb
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Description : Threats to freedom of the press and the need for democratic dialogue are always greatest in wartime. At a time when the debate over the role of the free press is as contentious as ever before, John Byrne Cooke, son of the veteran journalist Alistair Cooke, delivers a must-read exploration of freedom of the press in wartime throughout American history. Reporting the War brings to life how the press has affected the course of some, but not all, American wars, how the government has tried to suppress opposing opinion, how the press has struggled, and continues to struggle to preserve the principles of the Founding Fathers. Cooke charts a fascinating journey from the American Revolution to the ongoing War on Terrorism.


War On Words

Author by : Joanne M. Lisosky
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
Total Download : 770
File Size : 48,8 Mb
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Description : · Provides descriptions of contemporary strategies used to protect journalists in conflict · Contains contributions from more than 60 stakeholders interested in the protection of journalists · Presents a historical background of international policies, declarations, and resolutions intended to protect journalists · Contains 18 vignettes of journalists killed, harassed, or threatened when reporting from Mexico to Gaza to Pakistan and China


Neither Peace Nor Freedom

Author by : Patrick Iber
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
Total Download : 399
File Size : 53,5 Mb
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Description : Patrick Iber tells the story of left-wing Latin American artists, writers, and scholars who worked as diplomats, advised rulers, opposed dictators, and even led nations during the Cold War. Ultimately, they could not break free from the era’s rigid binaries, and found little room to promote their social democratic ideals without compromising them.


Seven Events That Made America America

Author by : Larry Schweikart
Languange : en
Publisher by : Penguin
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 50
Total Download : 216
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : A conservative historian examines some of the pivotal, yet often ignored, moments that shaped our history All students of American history know the big events that dramatically shaped our country. The Civil War, Pearl Harbor, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and 9/11 are just a few. But there are other, less famous events that had an equally profound impact. Notable conservative historian Larry Schweikart takes an in- depth look at seven of these transformative moments and provides an analysis of how each of them spurred a trend that either confirmed or departed from the vision our Founding Fathers had for America. For instance, he shows how Martin Van Buren's creation of a national political party made it possible for Obama to get elected almost two centuries later and how Dwight Eisenhower's heart attack led to a war on red meat, during which the government took control over Americans' diets. In his easy-to-read yet informative style, Schweikart will not only educate but also surprise readers into reevaluating our history.


The Home Front Encyclopedia

Author by : James Ciment
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
Total Download : 730
File Size : 44,6 Mb
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Description : An encyclopedia of life on the home front during the two world wars provides biographical profiles, articles on all aspects of life during the era, chronologies of important events, and primary source documents.


Power And Conflict In The Age Of Transparency

Author by : B. Finel
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 39
Total Download : 752
File Size : 51,6 Mb
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Description : The twenty-first century will feature unprecedented global transparency. From the advent of the Internet to the rise of global media to the proliferation of commercial satellites, more information will be available to more people about more things than ever before in human history. This increase in transparency is certain to have a major effect on international politics, and particularly on the possibility of armed conflict in the next millennium. This volume represents the first comprehensive collection of articles written by leading scholars and policy analysts examining the effects of transparency on world politics.


Mass Media People And Politics In Nigeria

Author by : Luke Uka Uche
Languange : en
Publisher by : Concept Publishing Company
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 62
Total Download : 301
File Size : 55,5 Mb
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Description : This Study Brings To The Fore The Precarious Predicament Of The Mass Media Of A Country Whose Political Culture Is Characterised By Divergent And Powerful Interest Groups With Insatiable Political And Economic Demands On The Larger Political Entity. It Demonstrates How Nigeria`S Development As A Nation State Has Similarily Influenced The Way And Manner Of The Organisation, Administration And Contents Of Her Mass Media Systems.


The American Civil War And The British Press

Author by : Alfred Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : McFarland
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
Total Download : 161
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : Those writing for the British press of the mid-Victorian era were masters of the English language, given to tirades of grand oratory. They liked to cover the former colonies, arousing rhetorical fears among Britons over the increasing power of the United States. With the advent of the American Civil War, the British press had the perfect opportunity to practice their peculiar brand of journalism. The South was the home of virtuous aristocrats, and Lincoln had bad taste, bad grammar and the respect of no one. Selections from all of Britain's major Civil War-era newspapers and magazines (along with numerous pamphlets) are presented, with the author's historical and editorial comments. A revealing assessment of British journalistic treatment of the War Between the States is the result. Sections of the book are devoted to the British press' handling of contentious issues between the North and South, specific battles or persons, a detailed profile of The Times of London (including personal correspondence) with examples of the bias in favor of the Confederacy in The Times' reportage, and the portrayal by the press of Lincoln's presidency upon his assassination (suddenly The Times found wisdom and goodness).


Media Wars And Politics

Author by : Ekaterina Balabanova
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 219
File Size : 48,6 Mb
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Description : The interaction between media and foreign policy is a critical dimension of the so-called age of 'new military humanitarianism'. The media is now more effective in gathering and distributing information all over the world and media coverage of humanitarian wars allows for information and images to reach a wide audience with great immediacy and realism. For policy making, the 24/7 news cycle means high levels of exposure to fast-breaking international stories receiving global attention and producing a powerful 'do something!' effect. This topical book widens the debate beyond US media and policy making by considering the case of Western and Eastern European media and policy processes. It tests the wider application of existing theoretical approaches and provides useful comparisons, allowing the reader to draw conclusions on the media-policy relationship. It is an excellent resource for all those interested in political communication, European politics and media studies.


Your Country Our War

Author by : Katherine A. Brown
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 19
Total Download : 700
File Size : 42,6 Mb
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Description : Journalists are actors in international relations, mediating communications between governments and publics, but also between the administrations of different countries. American and foreign officials simultaneously consume the work of U.S. journalists and use it in their own thinking about how to conduct their work. As such, journalists play an unofficial diplomatic role. However, the U.S. news media largely amplifies American power. Instead of stimulating greater understanding, the U.S. elite, mainstream press can often widen mistrust as they promote an American worldview and, with the exception of some outliers, reduce the world into a tight security frame in which the U.S. is the hegemon. This has been the case in Afghanistan since 2001, particularly as emerging Afghan journalists have relied significantly on U.S. and other Western news outlets to report events within their government and their country. Based on eight years of interviews in Kabul, Washington, and New York, Your Country, Our War demonstrates how news has intersected with international politics during the War in Afghanistan and shows the global power and reach of the U.S. news media, especially within the context of the post-9/11 era. It reviews the trajectory of the U.S. news narrative about Afghanistan and America's never-ending war, and the rise of Afghan journalism, from 2001 to 2017. The book also examines the impact of the American news media inside a war theater. It examines how U.S. journalists affected the U.S.-Afghan relationship and chronicles their contribution to the rapid development of a community of Afghan journalists who grappled daily with how to define themselves and their country during a tumultuous and uneven transition from fundamentalist to democratic rule. Providing rich detail about the U.S.-Afghan relationship, especially former President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai's convictions about the role of the Western press, we begin to understand how journalists are not merely observers to a story; they are participants in it.


Encyclopedia Of American Civil Rights And Liberties Revised And Expanded Edition 2nd Edition 4 Volumes

Author by : Kara E. Stooksbury
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
Total Download : 100
File Size : 47,7 Mb
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Description : Thoroughly updated and featuring 75 new entries, this monumental four-volume work illuminates past and present events associated with civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. • Offers 686 alphabetically arranged entries, ranging from thoroughly updated entries from the first edition to 75 new entries that cover dramatic changes in civil rights and liberties in the last decade • Covers the latest events and controversies surrounding civil liberties issues in America • Fully explores the scope and limitations of Constitutional rights, a perennially hot topic in American politics and society • Includes primary documents with contextual headnotes to enhance understanding of the full importance of the featured document • Provides sources for further reading with each entry to help users engage in additional research


Data Driven Personas

Author by : Bernard J. Jansen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 46
Total Download : 416
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : Data-driven personas are a significant advancement in the fields of human-centered informatics and human-computer interaction. Data-driven personas enhance user understanding by combining the empathy inherent with personas with the rationality inherent in analytics using computational methods. Via the employment of these computational methods, the data-driven persona method permits the use of large-scale user data, which is a novel advancement in persona creation. A common approach for increasing stakeholder engagement about audiences, customers, or users, persona creation remained relatively unchanged for several decades. However, the availability of digital user data, data science algorithms, and easy access to analytics platforms provide avenues and opportunities to enhance personas from often sketchy representations of user segments to precise, actionable, interactive decision-making tools—data-driven personas! Using the data-driven approach, the persona profile can serve as an interface to a fully functional analytics system that can present user representation at various levels of information granularity for more task-aligned user insights. We trace the techniques that have enabled the development of data-driven personas and then conceptually frame how one can leverage data-driven personas as tools for both empathizing with and understanding of users. Presenting a conceptual framework consisting of (a) persona benefits, (b) analytics benefits, and (c) decision-making outcomes, we illustrate applying this framework via practical use cases in areas of system design, digital marketing, and content creation to demonstrate the application of data-driven personas in practical applied situations. We then present an overview of a fully functional data-driven persona system as an example of multi-level information aggregation needed for decision making about users. We demonstrate that data-driven personas systems can provide critical, empathetic, and user understanding functionalities for anyone needing such insights.


In Defence Of Press Freedom In Africa An Essay

Author by : Mentan, Tatah
Languange : en
Publisher by : Langaa RPCIG
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 51
Total Download : 512
File Size : 47,9 Mb
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Description : When Africa stumbled into independence in the 1960s, the blossoming of newspapers of nearly every political persuasion was widely hailed as a critical stepping stone toward true multiparty democracy. However, rather than marking a clean break with an authoritarian past, the era of multiparty politics in Africa has been a time of increased hardship and repression for journalists who dare criticize powerful incumbents. Media repression continues to rise. After decades of retreat, authoritarian regimes are using social media and other sophisticated systems in a new era of repression to thwart democracy and trample human rights. For consecutive decades, the state of freedom has declined – more people in more places face more repression. While systemic torture in war-torn Somalia and the return of a military dictatorship in Egypt captured headlines, there is also widespread, insidious and 21st-century style surveillance elsewhere with abuse or imprisonment or both of political activists. For the media to play its role as priests of democracy, Tatah Mentan maintains that media freedom must be rigorously defended as integral to the democratic way of life.