Wide Rivers Crossed

Author by : Ellen Wohl
Languange : en
Publisher by : University Press of Colorado
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Description : "In Wide Rivers Crossed, Ellen Wohl tells the stories of two rivers—the South Platte on the western plains and the Illinois on the eastern—to represent the environmental history and historical transformation of major rivers across the American prairie. Wohl begins with the rivers’ natural histories, including their geologic history, physical characteristics, ecological communities, and earliest human impacts, and follows a downstream and historical progression from the use of the rivers’ resources by European immigrants through increasing population density of the twentieth century to the present day. The environmental changes in the South Platte and the Illinois reflect the relentless efforts by humans to control the distribution of water: to enhance surface water in the arid western prairie and to limit the spread of floods and drain the wetlands along the rivers in the water-abundant east. In addition, during the past two centuries crops replaced native vegetation; excess snowmelt and rainfall carried fertilizers and pesticides into streams; and levees, dams, and drainage altered distribution. These changes cascaded through networks, starting in small headwater tributaries, and reduced the ability of rivers to supply the clean water, fertile soil, and natural habitats they had provided for centuries. Understanding how these rivers, and rivers in general, function and how these functions have been altered over time will allow us to find innovative approaches to restoring river ecosystems. Wide Rivers Crossed looks at these historical changes and discusses opportunities for much needed protection and restoration for the future."


Urban Rivers

Author by : Stéphane Castonguay
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Pittsburgh Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 98
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Description : Urban Rivers examines urban interventions on rivers through politics, economics, sanitation systems, technology, and societies; how rivers affected urbanization spatially, in infrastructure, territorial disputes, and in floodplains, and via their changing ecologies. Providing case studies from Vienna to Manitoba, the chapters assemble geographers and historians in a comparative survey of how cities and rivers interacted from the seventeenth century to the present. Rising cities and industries were great agents of social and ecological changes, particularly during the nineteenth century, when mass populations and their effluents were introduced to river environments. Accumulated pollution and disease mandated the transfer of wastes away from population centers. In many cases, potable water for cities now had to be drawn from distant sites. These developments required significant infrastructural improvements, creating social conflicts over land jurisdiction and affecting the lives and livelihood of nonurban populations. The effective reach of cities extended and urban space was remade. By the mid-twentieth century, new technologies and specialists emerged to combat the effects of industrialization. Gradually, the health of urban rivers improved. From protoindustrial fisheries, mills, and transportation networks, through industrial hydroelectric plants and sewage systems, to postindustrial reclamation and recreational use, Urban Rivers documents how Western societies dealt with the needs of mass populations while maintaining the viability of their natural resources. The lessons drawn from this study will be particularly relevant to today's emerging urban economies situated along rivers and waterways.


Corn Kings And One Horse Thieves

Author by : James Krohe
Languange : en
Publisher by : SIU Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
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Description : "This popular general history of the middle third of Illinois is organized thematically and covers the Woodland period of prehistory until roughly 1960"--


Stream Ecosystems In A Changing Environment

Author by : Jeremy B. Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Elsevier
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 431
File Size : 40,9 Mb
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Description : Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment synthesizes the current understanding of stream ecosystem ecology, emphasizing nutrient cycling and carbon dynamics, and providing a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change. Each chapter includes a section focusing on anticipated and ongoing dynamics in stream ecosystems in a changing environment, along with hypotheses regarding controls on stream ecosystem functioning. The book, with its innovative sections, provides a bridge between papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and the findings of researchers in new areas of study. Presents a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change Provides a synthesis of the latest findings on stream ecosystems ecology in one concise volume Includes thought exercises and discussion activities throughout, providing valuable tools for learning Offers conceptual models and hypotheses to stimulate conversation and advance research


Agricultural Drainage Ditches Mitigation Wetlands For The 21st Century

Author by : Matthew T. Moore and Robert Kroger
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 79
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File Size : 48,8 Mb
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Description : About the Book : - As populations across the globe burgeon and pressures on agricultural production intensify, natural resources of adjacent and downstream aquatic ecosystems are often degraded. Classically, non-point source contamination of nutrients, sediments and pesticides result in aquatic ecosystem degradation, downstream river eutrophication, and in some cases, eventual coastal ecosystem imbalance with hypoxic zones occurring in coastal waters. Managers, action agencies and conservationists want to reduce impacts of non-point source contamination on receiving systems. Best management practices such as no-till, implementation of buffer strips, riparian corridors, and conservation fertilizer applications are all management applications that reduce the concentration and load of contaminants to aquatic systems. Drainage is a common management practice on most agricultural production, as farmers require water to move away from maturing crops avoiding crop senescence and loss of yield by flooding and soil saturation. Thus, agricultural drainage ditches are ubiquitous features of the production landscape. Traditionally agricultural drainage ditches were viewed simply as drainage tools, a conduit to rapidly move water away from the production landscape and into adjacent aquatic systems. However, there is a paradigm shift occurring whereby scientists and managers are viewing these drainage ditches as integral tools in the management of non-point source contamination. Along with these studies, multiple other studies are beginning to show the ecological importance of drainage ditches and their contribution to both the agricultural and broader ecological landscape. This book highlights cutting-edge research being carried out on agricultural drainage ditches. Chapter 1 (Werner et al.) is aimed at characterizing the benthic macroinvertebrate communities in secondary and tertiary agricultural drainage ditches in Yolo County, California. These ditches were approximately 1-2 m wide, about 0.1-0.6m in depth, and were ephemeral in nature. Despite the ephemeral nature of these secondary and tertiary ditches, 14 different benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were found, of which baetid mayflies were the only EPT (ephemeroptera, plecoptera, and trichoptera) taxa found. Interestingly, species richness was significantly correlated with water depth, and oligochaetes were most abundant where substrate quality was poor (percentage organic, mud, sand, gravel, cobble and hardpan clay) and dissolved oxygen was low. By examining the differences between perennial and ephemeral ditches, it was shown that perennial sites had larger, more diverse invertebrate communities; however, it was not discredited that these differences could have been the result of proximity to colonization and adversely affected by potential sources of nonpoint source contamination. This study highlighted the need for more in depth work into quantifying the role macroinvertebrates play in drainage ditch dynamics and how alterations to ditch management might change the population structure and diversity. Chapter 2 (Feldman et al.) complements the benthic macroinvertebrate research of Chapter 1, highlighting macroinvertebrate assemblages of agricultural drainage ditches of northeast Arkansas, in the floodplain of the Mississippi River. Feldman et al. noted that the characteristic benthic macroinvertebrate fauna will be reflective of the hydraulic residence time of the respective ditch surveyed. In this study, Feldman et al. assessed ten drainages (ranging in size from primary intercept ditches to riverine, quaternary ditches) and characterized over 68 different macroinvertebrate taxa. Mean annual taxa metric scores ranged from 16 in primary systems to 24 in riverine/quaternary ditches. Interestingly seasonal sampling collections highlighted seasonal differences in the macroinvertebrate population assemblage. By combining measures of macroinvertebrate diversity and physical environmental quality parameters and evaluating how they change temporally, benthic macroinvertebrate can be utilized as indicators for changes in water quality within water bodies. Often in primary drainage ditches low EPT richness was not a function of degraded water quality, but rather a lack of habitat diversity that prevented diverse EPT establishment. The third chapter (Smiley et al.) addressed understanding the knowledge of population and community ecology of fishes within agricultural drainage ditches. Often agricultural drainage ditch systems are straightened channels lacking riparian vegetation in an agricultural landscape. Furthermore, these agricultural drainage ditches undergo periods of intensive management that includes dredging and herbicide application to decrease channel hydrologic capacity and prevent vegetation (both woody and herbaceous) establishment. This literature survey identified documents and publications that documented fish responses to physical habitat modifications and/or exposures to agricultural contaminants. The study identified over 800 possible publications with selection criteria including: agricultural land use in watershed, headwater streams, and streams that were channelized. From the literature review, Smiley et al. found that fishes appeared to be integral components of agricultural drainage ditches and were often correlated with instream habitat variables of channelization and the effects of nonpoint contaminants of herbicides and nutrients. Future research is looking at integrating the drainage ditches ability to mitigate nonpoint source loads as well as provide habitat for fish communities. In Chapter 4, Pierce and Pezeshki examined another biological component of agricultural drainage ditches, namely vegetation. This research begins to disseminate the limitations of vegetation in establishment, productivity and function in agricultural drainage ditches. Primary systems such as ditches are dynamic environments in terms of hydrological fluctuations, soil water stress conditions, and the influence of anthropogenic disturbances associated with land use patterns (i.e. fertilizer, herbicide loads and concentrations). Thus, to survive ditch conditions, plants (whether annual or perennial) must possess life history characteristics that allow them to become established and withstand periods of intense hydrological fluctuations and high loads / concentrations of chemicals. This chapter offers some insights to the current knowledge on how plants mitigate agricultural pollutants and provides an outline for the abiotic factors that will limit the establishment and productivity of ditch vegetation. The synthesis outlines the effects of ditch management techniques such as 2-stage ditches, the use of low-grade drainage control structures and how these influence the biogeochemical environment in drainage ditches. Furthermore the authors provide examples of studies that have shown the ability of vegetation exposed to various environmental scenarios commensurate with drainage ditches (e.g. Leersia oryzoides, Juncus effusus and Bacopa monnieri). The fifth chapter (Kleinman et al.) investigated the role agricultural drainage ditches play in nutrient transfers from manured fields in the Delmarva Peninsula, on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. This research in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is driven primarily by the poor water quality in the Bay (hypoxic zones and eutrophic conditions resulting in algal blooms), which occurs as a result of nutrient and sediment loadings from agriculture upstream. According to the public drainage associations, drainage ditches are designed as conduits to remove excess water from the production landscape, with the removal of vegetation a common management practices to improve drainage. Research findings have shown that ditches, no matter the size, can contribute significantly to nutrient export. Small drainage ditches with high concentrations and large water volumes can contribute significantly to downstream aquatic contaminant loads. Furthermore, even ditches that do not have a point source of nutrient loading directly, given high background concentrations, will yield significant contributions to the nutrient loadings in years of high flow. This research provides insight into how management of drainage ditches needs to be incorporated in broader watershed nutrient management programs. In Chapter 6, Saunders and Brown examined how drainage ditches, in particular sediments, play a role in phosphorus sorption from municipal wastewater in Peru, South America. Phosphorus is a contaminant across the globe, associated with agriculture but also closely associated with urban and rural communities (e.g. detergents). Phosphorus in aquatic systems results in algal blooms, eutrophication and a potential concern for tourism due to the aesthetics associated with water quality and indirect effects on fisheries. This study based in the Oxapampa community in Peru examined three municipal drainage ditches and evaluated the role sediments played in phosphorus sorption. Total phosphorus of sediments was very high (2171 19, 277 mg P /kg) with the majority of P associated with Fe / Al oxyhydroxides. Sorption capacities and physicochemical characteristics varied between seasons (i.e. clay and organic matter contents). The chapter highlights how drainage ditches can be both sinks and sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, and that sorption capacity is influenced by the timing of phosphorus exports (i.e. seasonality) and the magnitude of export. Next, Penn et al. (Chapter 7) evaluated various treatment structures in agricultural drainage ditch management for water quality improvement. Drainage ditches are conduits for contaminant transfer from the agricultural production landscape to downstream aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, improving the ecological benefit of drainage ditches to water quality improvement can occur by implementing management strategies of controlled drainage. Penn et al propose implementing a flow control structure which controls water depth within the drainage ditch. In addition, filter structures, filled with various sorbents can be used to enhance nutrient or contaminant mitigation. The study addresses the importance of various sorbent materials and discusses in detail the advantages and disadvantages of each. Furthermore, the authors address design considerations of the filter structures, ditch filter designs (pond and dam structures), and what these structures mean in a broader system management within the watershed. The eighth chapter (Stringfellow et al.) examined the water quality changes occurring in agricultural drains associated with varying degree of riparian buffers in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The study evaluated nitrate-nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate and total suspended solids concentrations and loads that were associated with five different study sites, all of which had varying degrees of riparian function. Riparian function was evaluated with the California Rapid Assessment for Wetlands, a scientifically defensible tool to evaluate the overall health of wetland ecosystems. The stated hypothesis was that drainage ditches with high degrees of riparian function would have a beneficial effect on water quality in drainages in comparison to drainages with less vegetation and less riparian habitat. Results showed that areas with improved riparian habitat and higher degrees of riparian function will buffer drainages from external anthropogenic sources of contamination, but the in-stream water quality improvement of drainage ditches is not enhanced by simple improvements to ditch bank vegetation. It was recommended modifications to the in-stream drainage management will likely improve in-stream removal of nutrients and sediments. Chapter 9 (Jayakaran et al.) discussed construction, maintenance, and geomorphic evolution of low-gradient agricultural drainage ditches. Important issues such as bank erosion, contaminant transport, and general ditch design were not initially part of early settlers plans when digging ditches to drain water-holding landscapes for agriculture. Fluvial features consistent with natural streams play a significant role in the management and design of these ditches. Significant work on drainage ditches in the Midwest feeding tile or sub-surface drainage systems has been achieved. This chapter is an excellent resource for those interested in specific design criteria for modifying channels. The tenth chapter (Farris et al.) discussed the toxicity of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin amendments in agricultural drainage ditches, and evaluated the ability of the drainage ditches to potentially mitigate downstream effects of these pesticides. Atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrin are two agro-chemicals commonly utilized in the agricultural production landscape and are often carried with surface runoff and spray-drift into adjacent aquatic ecosystems. The study evaluated a drainage ditch system located in the Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MDMSEA) and its ability to reduce the toxicity of the above mentioned pesticides. The 28 d trial time span failed to identify the exact duration at which acute toxicity exposures to sediment exposed to these two agro-chemicals would have no sublethal effects. Toxicity of aquatic invertebrates occurred within the drainage ditch ecosystem, however, the structure and function of agricultural drainage ditches for mitigation is an important ecological component that warrants significant further investigation. The study alludes to further research within agricultural drainage ditches from an ecotoxicological context. The eleventh and final chapter (Bennett et al.) improves the understanding on pesticide mitigation in drainage ditches highlighted in Chapter 10, by looking more specifically at the effectiveness of vegetated agricultural drainage ditches in mitigating aquatic insecticide loadings. Often adjacent aquatic ecosystems (i.e. surface drainage ditches) to agricultural production are influenced by insecticide loadings resulting from runoff and spray-drift. This chapter focuses on the use of agricultural drainage ditches as best management practices in reducing insecticide loadings in two very different scenarios: agricultural ditches in Mississippi under simulated runoff conditions and in ditches in the Western Cape of South Africa, under natural runoff and spray-drift conditions. The results from the study showed that in both ditch systems, concentrations of bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were reduced rapidly with distance and time. For the Mississippi ditches, it was calculated that ditch lengths of 120 m and 280 m were required to reduce bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to 1% and 0.1%, respectively, of the original loadings. In the Western Cape scenario similar relationships occurred where pesticide concentrations (azinphos-methyl) declined with distance. It was noted that the aquatic macrophyte component of the drainage ditches played an important role in the retention and providing available surface area for pesticide attachment in agricultural ditch systems. Authors validated the effectiveness of mitigation with a series of aquatic toxicity bioassays and benthic surveys. As one can see from the variety of research topics addressed in the chapters of this book, agricultural drainage ditch research is rapidly shifting the use of the agricultural drainage ditches away from traditional system conduits to important management tools in the agricultural landscape. As alluded to at the end of most chapters, these research topics have provided vital answers to the importance of drainage ditches, but they have also developed a suite of questions that demand further research. The advancement of drainage ditch science is of benefit to scientific community, management and relevant stakeholders. In proving their worth for ecological services of contaminant mitigation and biodiversity maintenance, drainage ditches can be influential tools in developing broad sweeping management objectives for watershed scale water and contaminant management.


Report On Channel Modifications

Author by : Arthur D. Little, Inc
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 30
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Creating Freshwater Wetlands

Author by : Donald A. Hammer
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 11
Total Download : 495
File Size : 54,5 Mb
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Description : Creating Freshwater Wetlands, Second Edition clearly demonstrates the step-by-step processes required to restore or create freshwater wetlands. It presents practical advice on choosing sites, getting help, attracting and stocking wildlife, selecting plants, and wetland operation and maintenance. This is an excellent book on one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet.


Land Degradation

Author by : Douglas L. Johnson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 787
File Size : 41,9 Mb
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Description : Land Degradation explores the substantial decrease in an area's biological productivity or usefulness to humans due to human activities. The second edition of Johnson and Lewis's well-received text thoroughly examines this growing area of study using a global perspective, as well as up-to-date information. The various case studies cover the history of land degradation, look at local and regional effects of human interactions with the environment, and compare creative destruction with destructive creation.


Tropical Wetland Management

Author by : Dr Antonio Augusto Rossotto Ioris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 82
Total Download : 439
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Description : Recent scientific development and politico-institutional experiences related to the conservation of the South-American Pantanal are explored in this book in relation to what is happening in other tropical wetland areas of international importance such as the Everglades in North America and the Okavango in Africa, as well as considering the European experience. An interdisciplinary group of authors examines the need to establish a constructive dialogue between scientists, policy-makers and local stakeholders and outline a future research agenda, including consideration of the impacts of climate change and the pressures of regional development, for wetland management.


Wetland Creation Restoration And Conservation

Author by : W.J. Mitsch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Newnes
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 23
Total Download : 561
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Description : This book covers selected papers that were presented by participants at a "Wetland Invitational" held in Columbus Ohio, USA in May 2003. They are divided, by subject matter into four general categories: 1. Restoration of a large river basin and delta; 2. Long-term wetland restoration; 3. Creation of wetlands for mitigation of wetland loss; 4. Conservation and restoration of the world’s wetlands. * Provides key integrated, long-term assessments * Covers a selection of the world's most significant wetlands * Addresses management approaches for wetland conservation, creation and restoration


Quaternary Environmental Change In Southern Africa

Author by : Jasper Knight
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 90
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Description : Provides a benchmark study of southern African landscape evolution during the Quaternary, for researchers, professionals and policymakers.


River Ecosystem Ecology

Author by : Gene E. Likens
Languange : en
Publisher by : Academic Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 17
Total Download : 131
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Description : A derivative of the Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, River Ecosystem Ecology reviews the function of rivers and streams as ecosystems as well as the varied activities and interactions that occur among their abiotic and biotic components. Because the articles are drawn from an encyclopedia, the articles are easily accessible to interested members of the public, such as conservationists and environmental decision makers. Includes an up-to-date summary of global aquatic ecosystems and issues Covers current environmental problems and management solutions Features full-color figures and tables to support the text and aid in understanding


River Plants Of Western Europe

Author by : S. M. Haslam
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 38
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Description : Originally published in 1987, this book describes and discusses the vegetation of rivers and other watercourses in Europe with an emphasis upon distributional, community and historical ecology. It was firmly based upon many years of field investigations carried out by the author in various countries in the European Economic Community. The main purpose of the text was to increase the understanding of river vegetation in relation to the varying physical characteristics of the watercourses. The rivers of the EEC are considered in detail, with an emphasis upon the influences of landscape, geology, climate, settlement patterns, water use and management and pollution. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in river botany.


Review Of The Literature On The Links Between Biodiversity And Climate Change

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : UNEP/Earthprint
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
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Description : The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th Assessment Report (AR4) concluded that climate change will have significant impacts on many aspects of biological diversity: On ecosytems, species, genetic diversity within species, and on ecological interactions. The implications of these impacts are significant For The long-term stability of the natural world and For The many benefits and services that humans derive from it. This report reviews the literature since the AR4. it draws on recent research to summarise advances in our understanding of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. The evidence For The impacts on biodiversity comes from three principal sources. First, from direct observation of changes in components of biodiversity in nature that can be clearly related to changes in climatic variables. Second, experimental studies using manipulations to elucidate responses to climate change. Finally, and most widely, from modelling studies where our current understanding of the requirements and constraints on the distribution of species and ecosystems are combined with modelled changes in climatic variables to project the impacts of climate change and predict future distributions and changes in populations.


Wetland Restoration Flood Pulsing And Disturbance Dynamics

Author by : Beth A. Middleton
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 59
Total Download : 782
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Description : While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process. While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning. Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide An extensive glossary of essential terms Wetland Restoration, Flood Pulsing, and Disturbance Dynamics is a valuable working resource for wetland restoration consultants, employees of government agencies, and professional land managers, as well as ecologists, foresters, and geologists involved with wetland restoration and management. It is also an excellent text for advanced courses in wetland restoration.


Wetlands

Author by : George Mulamoottil
Languange : en
Publisher by : CRC Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
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Description : An understanding of environmental gradients (physical, chemical, hydrological, and biological) is a prerequisite to the accurate delineation of wetland boundaries. Presenting the wide-ranging views of academicians, environmentalists, policy makers, consultants, planners, engineers, hydrologists, biologists, geochemists, ecologists, and conservationists, Wetlands: Environmental Gradients, Boundaries, and Buffers focuses on current topics and research related to wetland delineation; summarizes the main issues of concern; and provides recommendations on research needs. In addition to integrating the most important research and theoretical aspects, this book includes a strong prescriptive component, providing practicing professionals with specific guidance on defining the true dimensions of a wetland area.


Water Quality Engineering In Natural Systems

Author by : David A. Chin
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 73
Total Download : 839
File Size : 42,9 Mb
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Description : Detailing the fundamental equations that describe the fate and transport of contaminants in the environment, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems covers the practical application of these equations to engineering design and environmental impact analysis relating to contaminant discharges into rivers, lakes, wetlands, ground water, and oceans. This second edition is thoroughly updated to include new topics on nutrient and pathogen models in streams as well as much more coverage of methods to calculate calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Numerous practical examples and end of chapter problems are included.


Wetlands

Author by : William J. Mitsch
Languange : en
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 20
Total Download : 981
File Size : 52,6 Mb
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Description :