Description : The What Works initiative has been one of the most important recent developments in probation and is a key aspect of current probation practice -- all the more so since the creation of the National Probation Service (UK) in 2001. The initiative involved the development and implementation on a national basis of a demonstrably 'effective' set of core programmes of supervision of offenders, most of them dependent on a cognitive behavioural approach. Much has been invested in these new accredited programmes – both in terms of the numbers of offenders planned to complete them, and their anticipated impact on offending. Yet there has been little scholarly or professional discussion of the nature and risks of this dominant new paradigm, or any close examination of the evidence on which the What Works initiative is based. This book addresses this need, providing a critical overview of What Works and a wider set of perspectives on a project which is vital for the future of the National Probation Service. Its concern is not just with What Works but what matters, and has the following objectives: to assess critically the claims of the What Works initiative to examine the foundations on which What Works is based to demonstrate the limitations of the What Works initiative as currently conceived to begin the process of constructing an alternative vision for the National Probation Service.
Description : The What Works initiative is having a profound impact on the work of the National Probation Service, and much has been invested in new accredited programmes - both in terms of the numbers of offenders planned to complete these programmes and their anticipated impact upon offending. Yet there has been little scholarly or professional discussion of the nature and risks of the new paradigm: it is important that it is subjected to critical debate and scrutiny. This book aims to provide a critical overview of What Works, providing a wider set of perspectives on a project which is vital for the future of the National Probation Service.
Description : Covers new ideas and concepts as well as the established probation lexicon, including institutional, legal, political and theoretical terms used in the discipline and importing concepts from the disciplines of sociology, criminology and psychology.
Description : Privatisation was introduced into the probation service on the 1st June 2014 whereby work with medium and low risk offenders went to a number of private and voluntary bodies, work with high risk offenders remained with the State. The National Probation Service (NPS) covered State work whilst the 35 existing Probation Trusts were replaced by 21 Community Rehabilitation Companies (CRCs). Staff were allocated to either side of the divide but all remained as probation officers. The effect was that the existing probation service lost control of all but 30,000 of the most high risk cases, with the other 220,000 low to medium risk offenders being farmed out to private firms. Privatisation was justified as the only available way of achieving important policy objectives of extending post release supervision to offenders on short sentences, a group who are the most prolific offenders with high reconviction rates yet who receive no statutory support. This book describes the process by which the probation service became privatised, assessing its impact on the probation service itself, and on the criminal justice system generally. It considers both the justifications for privatisation, as well as the criticisms of it, and asks to what extent the probation service can survive such changes, and what future it has as a service dedicated to the welfare of offenders. It demonstrates how the privatisation of probation can be seen as a trend away from traditional public service in criminal justice towards an emphasis on efficiency and cost effectiveness. This book is essential reading for criminology students engaged with criminal justice, social policy, probation, punishment and working with offenders. It will also be key reading for practitioners and policy makers in jurisdictions where there is an interest in extending their own privatisation practice.
Description : This Handbook is an essential text for anybody working in probation, studying the subject as part of wider criminology or criminal justice course. It provides a comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date source of information and analysis about all aspects of the work of the Probation Service.
Description : This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to probation. It brings together themes of policy, theory and practice to help students and practitioners better understand the work of probation, its limitations, its potential, but above all its value. Setting probation in the context of the criminal justice system, the book explores its history, purposes and contemporary significance. It explains what probation is and the practical realities of working with offenders in the community. The book also covers the governance of probation and how policy and practice are responding to contemporary concerns about crime and community safety. This book encourages readers to appreciate the practical and theoretical strengths and shortcomings of contemporary probation practice. This revised and updated new edition includes a full description and discussion of recent reforms in the probation service and the Transforming Rehabilitation policy agenda. It also offers further discussion of international perspectives on probation, including international developments and collaborative efforts between countries. This book is essential reading for trainee probation officers and students taking courses on probation, offender management, treatment and rehabilitation, working with offenders and community justice.
Description : This book tells the story of probation from its religious beginnings in 1876 and legislative footing in 1907, through to the present day. The substantive chapters of the book cover the period 1979-2004 and explore probation by alluding to crime; imprisonment; politics and power; increasing central control and bureaucracy; criminology; and penal and social policy. Written by authors who have spent many years within the probation service, and therefore been involved in events they describe, the book provides a unique insight into probation over the last 25 years. It will be of great interest to serving probation and prison staff and will be a resource for trainee probation officers, and also be helpful to students of criminal justice, penal and social policy in colleges and universities. It will, in fact, appeal to all those who want a deeper understanding of the recent changes in probation. The book has been written to coincide with the approaching centenary of probation in 2007, and it challenges certain political initiatives over recent years that have culminated in the demise of the probation ideal.
Description : Treatment and rehabilitation have been central to the development of criminal justice policy, and have played an important role in the development of criminology. In recent years punishment and retribution have attracted more attention than rehabilitation, but there has been a resurgence of interest in treatment and rehabilitation, with indications that some things do 'work', and an emphasis on 'evidence-based' policy making. It is also the belief of many that a penal policy without an adequate treatment strategy is unjust and a denial of human rights. In this book Iain Crow provides an accessible overview of the concepts of treatment and rehabilitation, adopting a deliberately broad definition, and considers the historic
Description : At the dawn of the twenty-first century, panic about girls’ offending in Britain reached fever pitch. No longer sugar and spice, a ‘new breed’ of girl, the hedonistic, violent, binge-drinking ‘ladette’, was reported to have emerged. At the same time, the number of young women entering the youth justice system, including youth custody, increased dramatically. Offending Girls challenges simplistic and demonising popular representations of 'bad' girls and examines what exactly is new about the ‘new’ offending girl. In the light of enormous social and cultural changes affecting girls’ lives, and expectations of them, since previous British research in this area, the book investigates whether popular stereotypes problematising female youthful behaviour resonate with the accounts of criminalised young women themselves, and to what extent they have infiltrated professional youth justice discourse. Through the lens of original detailed qualitative research in two Youth Offending Teams and a Secure Training Centre – the first study of its kind since the 'modernisation' of the youth justice system over a decade ago – Offending Girls questions whether the ‘new’ youth justice system is delivering justice for girls and young women. It also contends that the panic about an ‘unprecedented crime wave’ amongst girls is not supported by robust evidence, but that the interventionist thrust which characterises contemporary youth justice has had a particularly pernicious impact on girls. It will be key reading for students and academics working in the areas of criminology, criminal and youth justice, education, gender studies, youth studies, social work, sociology and social policy, as well as youth and criminal justice practitioners and policy-makers.
Description : Reprint of the first edition of one of the earliest systematic studies of the criminal law. Sir George MacKenzie of Rosenhugh [1636-1691], "became notable for his resistance to the pretensions of the Crown, but in 1677, he was made Lord Advocate and in the next few years prosecuted and persecuted Covenanters with such zeal as to earn the title 'The Bloody Mackenzie.' In many cases he strained the law so as to obtain a conviction.": Walker, Oxford Companion to Law 792. He is also well-known for having founded the Advocates Library, now the national law library for Scotland. In contrast to Mackenzie's behavior on the bench, the Laws and Customes is notably moderate, especially in the sections dealing with witchcraft.