When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America

When Affirmative Action Was White  An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America
Author: Ira Katznelson
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2006-08-17
ISBN: 0393347141
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

When Affirmative Action Was White An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America Book Excerpt:

A groundbreaking work that exposes the twisted origins of affirmative action. In this "penetrating new analysis" (New York Times Book Review) Ira Katznelson fundamentally recasts our understanding of twentieth-century American history and demonstrates that all the key programs passed during the New Deal and Fair Deal era of the 1930s and 1940s were created in a deeply discriminatory manner. Through mechanisms designed by Southern Democrats that specifically excluded maids and farm workers, the gap between blacks and whites actually widened despite postwar prosperity. In the words of noted historian Eric Foner, "Katznelson's incisive book should change the terms of debate about affirmative action, and about the last seventy years of American history."

Summary of Ira Katznelson s When Affirmative Action Was White

Summary of Ira Katznelson s When Affirmative Action Was White
Author: Everest Media,
Publsiher: Everest Media LLC
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-05-10T22:59:00Z
ISBN: 1928374650XXX
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Summary of Ira Katznelson s When Affirmative Action Was White Book Excerpt:

Please note: This is a companion version & not the original book. Sample Book Insights: #1 President Lyndon B. Johnson gave the first known affirmative action speech for black students at Howard University in 1965. He stated that the country had overcome legal segregation, but that the disparity between white and black Americans had widened after the Second World War. #2 By the start of 1965, the Selma voting rights campaign had already been going on for a year, and the second march had been led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The campaign had been successful in demonstrating the need for voting rights legislation. #3 The civil rights movement was not just about black people, but about all Americans who had to overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. #4 Following the civil rights movement, racial discrimination was made illegal across the country.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Author: Tim J. Wise
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2005
ISBN: 0415950481
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action Book Excerpt:

First Published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

The Affirmative Action Puzzle
Author: Melvin I. Urofsky
Publsiher: Pantheon
Total Pages: 592
Release: 2020-01-28
ISBN: 1101870885
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Affirmative Action Puzzle Book Excerpt:

A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today’s tumultuous times From acclaimed legal historian, author of a biography of Louis Brandeis (“Remarkable” —Anthony Lewis, The New York Review of Books, “Definitive”—Jeffrey Rosen, The New Republic) and Dissent and the Supreme Court (“Riveting”—Dahlia Lithwick, The New York Times Book Review), a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy’s Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take “affirmative action” to ensure that there be no discrimination by “race, creed, color, or national origin” down to today’s American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another instituted some form of affirmative action plan--some successful, others not. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six mil­lion African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country’s history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt’s Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President’s Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

Not All Black and White

Not All Black and White
Author: Christopher F. Edley
Publsiher: Macmillan
Total Pages: 318
Release: 1998-03-04
ISBN: 0374525412
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Not All Black and White Book Excerpt:

Argues that affirmative action laws are essential to American social justice and racial equality

The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics

The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics
Author: Georgia A. Persons
Publsiher: Transaction Publishers
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2011-12-31
ISBN: 141280907X
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics Book Excerpt:

This volume joins the preceding volumes in this distinguished series in presenting contemporary research by leading political scientists addressing topics of interest to those concerned with African-American affairs. It captures the expanding boundaries of black politics and the persistent interests of the black community at large. The anchoring symposium, "The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics," presents the scholarship of a cadre of young black political scientists actively engaged in the critical tasks of moving forward the study of black politics. Their concerns include expanding the boundaries of black politics along the lines of epistemology and methodology, especially in regard to core issues and areas within this field. In an introductory essay by Todd Shaw, the work of these scholars is situated within the context of temporal shifts in scholarly emphases. Overlapping issues and concerns across time as well as black political scholarship as defined in the field since its beginning are addressed. The second part of this volume, entitled "Maximizing the Black Vote; Recognizing the Limits of Electoral Politics," concentrates on serious lingering social concerns. These include the policy significance of black mayors affecting the concomitant impact of the black vote, the boundaries being pushed concerning the conjunction of black theology and sexual identity, a gendered analysis of familial policies, and the deepening social and economic plight of young black males including felon disfranchisement. The Expanding Boundaries of Black Politics carries forth the search for an understanding of the relationship between religion, the black church, and black political behavior; cross-racial group coalitions as concerns matters of immigration, growing multiculturalism, and the impact on black politics; maximizing the impact of the black vote focusing on voting rights enforcement, the black vote in presidential elections, and the voice of the Congressional Black Caucus in American foreign policy; and persistent social inequalities especially as it concerns ideology, federalism, and social welfare policy.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Author: John W Johnson,Robert P. Green Jr.
Publsiher: Greenwood
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2009-05-19
ISBN: 0313081328
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action Book Excerpt:

Affirmative Action recounts the fascinating history of a civil rights provision considered vital to protecting and promoting equality, but still bitterly contested in the courts—and in the court of public opinion.

Affirmative Action in China and the U S

Affirmative Action in China and the U S
Author: M. Zhou,A. Hill
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2009-10-12
ISBN: 0230100929
Category: Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action in China and the U S Book Excerpt:

This volume is the first to comprehensively examine Chinese's affirmative action policies in the critical area of minority education, the most important conduit to employment and economic success in the PRC after the economic reforms begun in the late 1970s.

The GI Bill

The GI Bill
Author: Glenn Altschuler,Stuart Blumin
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2009-06-02
ISBN: 0199839999
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The GI Bill Book Excerpt:

On rare occasions in American history, Congress enacts a measure so astute, so far-reaching, so revolutionary, it enters the language as a metaphor. The Marshall Plan comes to mind, as does the Civil Rights Act. But perhaps none resonates in the American imagination like the G.I. Bill. In a brilliant addition to Oxford's acclaimed Pivotal Moments in American History series, historians Glenn C. Altschuler and Stuart M. Blumin offer a compelling and often surprising account of the G.I. Bill and its sweeping and decisive impact on American life. Formally known as the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, it was far from an obvious, straightforward piece of legislation, but resulted from tense political maneuvering and complex negotiations. As Altschuler and Blumin show, an unlikely coalition emerged to shape and pass the bill, bringing together both New Deal Democrats and conservatives who had vehemently opposed Roosevelt's social-welfare agenda. For the first time in American history returning soldiers were not only supported, but enabled to pursue success--a revolution in America's policy towards its veterans. Once enacted, the G.I. Bill had far-reaching consequences. By providing job training, unemployment compensation, housing loans, and tuition assistance, it allowed millions of Americans to fulfill long-held dreams of social mobility, reshaping the national landscape. The huge influx of veterans and federal money transformed the modern university and the surge in single home ownership vastly expanded America's suburbs. Perhaps most important, as Peter Drucker noted, the G.I. Bill "signaled the shift to the knowledge society." The authors highlight unusual or unexpected features of the law--its color blindness, the frankly sexist thinking behind it, and its consequent influence on race and gender relations. Not least important, Altschuler and Blumin illuminate its role in individual lives whose stories they weave into this thoughtful account. Written with insight and narrative verve by two leading historians, The G.I. Bill makes a major contribution to the scholarship of postwar America.

The Color of Money

The Color of Money
Author: Mehrsa Baradaran
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2017-09-14
ISBN: 0674982304
Category: Business & Economics
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Color of Money Book Excerpt:

In 1863 black communities owned less than 1 percent of total U.S. wealth. Today that number has barely budged. Mehrsa Baradaran pursues this wealth gap by focusing on black banks. She challenges the myth that black banking is the solution to the racial wealth gap and argues that black communities can never accumulate wealth in a segregated economy.

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads Fisher and Forward

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads  Fisher and Forward
Author: Edna Chun,Alvin Evans
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 146
Release: 2015-05-20
ISBN: 111912493X
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action at a Crossroads Fisher and Forward Book Excerpt:

The urgency of developing workable race-neutral admissions strategies that maximize the benefits of student diversity has increased. This practical guide offers: concrete recommendations and strategies for the creation of a campus ecosystem that maximizes the structural, curricular, and interactional benefits of diversity, extensive empirical findings and a rich research literature, opportunities for campuses to craft programs, processes, and intervention that maximize student learning outcomes related to diversity, and alternative strategies for addressing disadvantage, including the use of socioeconomic status and state-based percent plans. This book provides a comprehensive overview of key issues and strategic approaches that will assist institutions of higher education in fostering demographic diversity and building inclusive and welcoming campus environments. This is the fourth issue of the 41st volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey. Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.

Racing to Justice

Racing to Justice
Author: John Anthony Powell
Publsiher: Indiana University Press
Total Pages: 333
Release: 2012
ISBN: 0253006295
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Racing to Justice Book Excerpt:

Argues that America has more to do to redeem the promise of inclusive democracy, discussing the Western notions of individuality, rationality, and market captialism that contain seeds of exclusion and domination.

Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Author: The New York Times Editorial Staff
Publsiher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2020-07-15
ISBN: 1642823198
Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action Book Excerpt:

Affirmative action is a set of laws or policies that favors disenfranchised groups in efforts to compensate for the discriminatory practices of the past. The term first appeared in U.S. legislature in the 1930s, and has taken many forms. It has championed for those who have been discriminated against for their age, class, gender, race, or physical ability. Affirmative action has addressed discrimination in housing rights, employment, pay equality, civil rights, and academic admissions. These New York Times stories chronicle some of our government's greatest applications of affirmative action, when it has failed, how the perception of it has evolved, and where it will take equality in the future. Media literacy questions and terms are included to further engage readers with the collection.

Whiteness and Racialized Ethnic Groups in the United States

Whiteness and Racialized Ethnic Groups in the United States
Author: Sherrow O. Pinder
Publsiher: Lexington Books
Total Pages: 219
Release: 2012
ISBN: 0739164899
Category: History
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Whiteness and Racialized Ethnic Groups in the United States Book Excerpt:

This book, about the genealogy of whiteness, racialized ethnic groups, and the future of race relations in the United States, is for undergraduate or graduate courses including political science, ethnic studies, American Studies, and multicultural and gender studies. Also, it is accessible and of interest to a broader audience, including the general public who are interested in the future of race relations in the United States.

Privilege and Diversity in the Academy

Privilege and Diversity in the Academy
Author: Frances A. Maher,Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2013-10-18
ISBN: 113593990X
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Privilege and Diversity in the Academy Book Excerpt:

Over the past several decades, higher education has been transformed by the entry of faculty of color and women into the university system. Through detailed institutional ethnographies of three very different universities, Privilege and Diversity in the Academy explores how this diversification has dismantled and reconfigured relationships of privilege and diversity in higher education. Authors Maher and Tetreault use examples from a top-ranked private university, a comprehensive urban university, and a major public university to illustrate how privilege is enacted, resisted, and transformed as changes occur in the student bodies and faculties of these schools. In their analyses, they identify the institutional structures that facilitate the success of a diverse faculty and make valuable observations about patterns of institutional change and resistance.

Whiteucation

Whiteucation
Author: Jeffrey S. Brooks,George Theoharis
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2018-12-17
ISBN: 1351253476
Category: Education
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Whiteucation Book Excerpt:

This important volume explores how racism operates in schools and society, while also unpacking larger patterns of racist ideology and white privilege as it manifests across various levels of schooling. A diverse set of contributors analyze particular contexts of white privilege, providing key research findings, connections to policy, and exemplars of schools and universities that are overcoming these challenges. Whiteucation provides a multi-level and holistic perspective on how inequitable power dynamics and prejudice exist in schools, ultimately encouraging reflection, dialogue, and inquiry in spaces where white privilege needs to be questioned, interrogated, and dismantled.

Affirmative Action at Work

Affirmative Action at Work
Author: Bron Raymond Taylor
Publsiher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
Total Pages: 272
Release: 1991-10-15
ISBN: 0822974525
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Affirmative Action at Work Book Excerpt:

Bron Taylor unites theoretical and applied social science to analyze a salient contemporary moral and political problem. Three decades after the passage of civil rights laws, criteria for hiring and promotion to redress past discrimination and the sensitive “quota” question are still unresolved issues. Taylor reviews the works of prominent social scientists and philosophers on the moral and legal principles underlying affirmative action, and examines them in light of his own empirical study. Using participant observation, in-depth interviewing, and a detailed questionnaire, he examines the attitudes of four groups in the California Department of Parks and Recreation: male and female, white and nonwhite workers. Because the department has implemented a strong program for ten years, its employees have had firsthand experience with affirmative action. Their views about the rights of minorities in the economy are often surprising. This work presents a comprehensive picture of the cross-pressures-the racial fears and antagonisms, the moral, ethical, and religious views about fairness and opportunity, the rigid ideas-that guide popular attitudes.

Is Affirmative Action Fair

Is Affirmative Action Fair
Author: Natasha K. Warikoo
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 64
Release: 2022-09-23
ISBN: 1509549382
Category: Social Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Is Affirmative Action Fair Book Excerpt:

Affirmative action in college admissions – considering whether an applicant is part of an underrepresented group when making selection decisions – has long been a topic of heated public debate. Some argue that it undermines racial equity. Others advocate for its ability to promote equal opportunity in a racially unequal society. Who is right? In this thought-provoking book, Natasha Warikoo dives into the arguments for and against a policy that has made it to the US Supreme Court many times. She digs into the purposes of higher education and the selection process itself to argue that it is a mistake to equate college admissions with personal merit and reward for individual accomplishment. Rather, college admissions should be based on furthering the mission of higher education: contributing to our shared democracy and to the human condition. Ultimately, Warikoo concludes that a focus on individual fairness conceals much more important questions about justice. No matter what their perspective, readers of this book will find themselves thinking anew and asking the deeper questions that underlie this emotive debate.

Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States

Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States
Author: M. Stelzner
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 108
Release: 2015-01-23
ISBN: 1137388110
Category: Political Science
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States Book Excerpt:

The income share of the top one percent of the population in the United States has increased from a little over nine percent of national income in the 1970s to 22.46 percent in 2012 a 144 percent increase. What is driving this astronomic growth in incomes for some? Is it possibly the result of non-meritorious forces? If so, how has this incredibly unequal development coexisted, and indeed worsened, in a political system based on equality? In Economic Inequality and Policy Control in the United States, Stelzner tackles each of these questions, and, in order to further develop understanding, Stelzner looks to the past and analyzes our experience with income inequality and the orientation of laws and institutions from the Gilded Age through the New and Fair Deal. He concludes that we have the tools to tackle inequality at present the same policies we used during the New and Fair Deal. However, in order to make change durable, we have to eliminate the undemocratic elements of our political system.

Justice Deferred

Justice Deferred
Author: Orville Vernon Burton,Armand Derfner
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2021-05-04
ISBN: 067425886X
Category: Law
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Justice Deferred Book Excerpt:

In the first comprehensive accounting of the U.S. Supreme Court’s race-related jurisprudence, a distinguished historian and renowned civil rights lawyer scrutinize a legacy too often blighted by racial injustice. The Supreme Court is usually seen as protector of our liberties: it ended segregation, was a guarantor of fair trials, and safeguarded free speech and the vote. But this narrative derives mostly from a short period, from the 1930s to the early 1970s. Before then, the Court spent a century largely ignoring or suppressing basic rights, while the fifty years since 1970 have witnessed a mostly accelerating retreat from racial justice. From the Cherokee Trail of Tears to Brown v. Board of Education to the dismantling of the Voting Rights Act, historian Orville Vernon Burton and civil rights lawyer Armand Derfner shine a powerful light on the Court’s race record—a legacy at times uplifting, but more often distressing and sometimes disgraceful. For nearly a century, the Court ensured that the nineteenth-century Reconstruction amendments would not truly free and enfranchise African Americans. And the twenty-first century has seen a steady erosion of commitments to enforcing hard-won rights. Justice Deferred is the first book that comprehensively charts the Court’s race jurisprudence. Addressing nearly two hundred cases involving America’s racial minorities, the authors probe the parties involved, the justices’ reasoning, and the impact of individual rulings. We learn of heroes such as Thurgood Marshall; villains, including Roger Taney; and enigmas like Oliver Wendell Holmes and Hugo Black. Much of the fragility of civil rights in America is due to the Supreme Court, but as this sweeping history also reminds us, the justices still have the power to make good on the country’s promise of equal rights for all.