Why Free Will Is Real

Author by : Christian List
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvard University Press
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Description : Many scientists and scientifically-minded philosophers are skeptical that free will exists. In clear, scientifically rigorous terms, Christian List explains that free will is like other real phenomena that emerge from physical laws but are autonomous from them—like an ecosystem or the economy—and are indispensable for explaining our world.


Determinism And Free Will

Author by : Fabio Scardigli
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
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Description : In this small book, theoretical physicist Gerard 't Hooft (Nobel prize 1999), philosopher Emanuele Severino (Lincei Academician), and theologian Piero Coda (Pontifical Lateran University) confront one another on a topic that lies at the roots of quantum mechanics and at the origin of Western thought: Determinism and Free Will. "God does not play dice" said Einstein, a tenacious determinist. Quantum Mechanics and its clash with General Relativity have reanimated ancient dilemmas about chance and necessity: Is Nature deterministic? Is Man free? The “free-will theorem” by Conway and Kochen, and the deterministic interpretation of quantum mechanics proposed by 't Hooft, revive such philosophical questions in modern Physics. Is Becoming real? Is the Elementary Event a product of the Case? The cyclopean clash between Heraclitus and Parmenides has entered a new episode, as evidenced by the essays in this volume.


Artificial Intelligence And Free Will On The First Day Of Kindergarten

Author by : Ralph Di Fiore
Languange : en
Publisher by : EABooks Publishing
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Description : Do humans have free will? Are we merely deterministic automatons? Will artificial intelligence ever become equal to human consciousness? Will AI take over the world as predicted by some? These major questions that challenged philosophers throughout the ages and today are addressed in this succinct but powerful short book. The author skillfully navigates these very important subjects and the end result is one that shall comfort those who fear AI will take over and those who do not feel humans are mindless automatons. With the onslaught of scientism that reduces humans to mere mindless automatons, this refreshing book shows that free will is real and that the human mind can never be replicated by artificial intelligence. In a concise and logical fashion, the book demonstrates that we do indeed have free will and that the human mind is not a mere by product of the brain.


The Non Reality Of Free Will

Author by : Associate Professor of Philosophy and Department Chair Richard Double
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press on Demand
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Description : The traditional disputants in the free will discussion--the libertarian, soft determinist, and hard determinist--agree that free will is a coherent concept, while disagreeing on how the concept might be satisfied and whether it can, in fact, be satisfied. In this innovative analysis, Richard Double offers a bold new argument, rejecting all of the traditional theories and proposing that the concept of free will cannot be satisfied, no matter what the nature of reality. Arguing that there is unavoidable conflict within our understanding of moral responsibility and free choice, Double seeks to prove that when we ascribe responsibility, blame, or freedom, we merely express attitudes, rather than state anything capable of truth or falsity. Free will, he concludes, is essentially an incoherent notion.


Belief Among Academics In Free Will And In The Veracity Of Scientific Judgement

Author by : Brian D. Doan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : "A review of the philosophical and psychological literature on free will is presented. Three major positions are identified: libertarianism, hard determinism and compatibilism (or soft determinism). The latter enjoys widespread and largely unchallenged support in psychology. Substantive conceptual and empirical grounds are presented which suggest that psychologists may be dismissing free will at their peril. It is argued, first of all, that belief in the reality of free will has profound implications for conceptions of human action, of moral responsibility, of the form and veracity of scientific accounts and of the validity of scientific reduction. Moreover, the results of a multi-disciplinary survey of academics reveal that 80% of those surveyed believe free will is real. Contrary to popular assumptions in psychology, determinism is not endorsed by many scientists outside of psychology, nor does belief in free will reflect naive belief in mind-body dualism. Modern libertarians reject both dualism and reductionism, distinguishing instead between different levels of scientific explanation. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for cognitive, social and clinical psychology, and directions for further research are suggested." --


Free Will Responsibility And Crime

Author by : Ken M. Levy
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : In his book, philosopher and law professor Ken Levy explains why he agrees with most people, but not with most other philosophers, about free will and responsibility. Most people believe that we have both – that is, that our choices, decisions, and actions are neither determined nor undetermined but rather fully self-determined. By contrast, most philosophers understand just how difficult it is to defend this "metaphysical libertarian" position. So they tend to opt for two other theories: "responsibility skepticism" (which denies the very possibility of free will and responsibility) and "compatibilism" (which reduces free will and responsibility to properties that are compatible with determinism). In opposition to both of these theories, Levy explains how free will and responsibility are indeed metaphysically possible. But he also cautions against the dogma that metaphysical libertarianism is actually true, a widespread belief that continues to cause serious social, political, and legal harms. Levy’s book presents a crisp, tight, historically informed discussion, with fresh clarity, insight, and originality. It will become one of the definitive resources for students, academics, and general readers in this critical intersection among metaphysics, ethics, and criminal law. Key features: Presents a unique, qualified defense of "metaphysical libertarianism," the idea that our choices, decisions, and actions can be fully self-determined. Written clearly, accessibly, and with minimal jargon – rare for a book on the very difficult issues of free will and responsibility. Seamlessly connects philosophical, legal, psychological, and political issues. Will be provocative and insightful for professional philosophers, students, and non-philosophers.


Elbow Room New Edition

Author by : Daniel C. Dennett
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
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Description : A landmark book in the debate over free will that makes the case for compatibilism. In this landmark 1984 work on free will, Daniel Dennett makes a case for compatibilism. His aim, as he writes in the preface to this new edition, was a cleanup job, “saving everything that mattered about the everyday concept of free will, while jettisoning the impediments.” In Elbow Room, Dennett argues that the varieties of free will worth wanting—those that underwrite moral and artistic responsibility—are not threatened by advances in science but distinguished, explained, and justified in detail. Dennett tackles the question of free will in a highly original and witty manner, drawing on the theories and concepts of fields that range from physics and evolutionary biology to engineering, automata theory, and artificial intelligence. He shows how the classical formulations of the problem in philosophy depend on misuses of imagination, and he disentangles the philosophical problems of real interest from the “family of anxieties” in which they are often enmeshed—imaginary agents and bogeymen, including the Peremptory Puppeteer, the Nefarious Neurosurgeon, and the Cosmic Child Whose Dolls We Are. Putting sociobiology in its rightful place, he concludes that we can have free will and science too. He explores reason, control and self-control, the meaning of “can” and “could have done otherwise,” responsibility and punishment, and why we would want free will in the first place. A fresh reading of Dennett's book shows how much it can still contribute to current discussions of free will. This edition includes as its afterword Dennett's 2012 Erasmus Prize essay.


Breaking The Free Will Illusion For The Betterment Of Humankind

Author by : 'Trick Slattery
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : Learn why the belief in free will doesn't make sense, and why you and the rest of humankind will be better off abandoning it! Free will is an ability many think they posses. Most, however, aren't aware of the dangers imposed by such a belief, and have never thought about free will other than their own assumptions based on a pervasive feeling. The logic, reason, and evidence, however, says something entirely different. Have you ever blamed yourself for something you've done in the past? If so, for how long? Perhaps you still are? Have you ever held a grudge over another person or them you? Perhaps you have hatred for someone who has opposing ideas, thoughts, and beliefs. Or maybe you think someone is more deserving than another or to blame for their own situation? The belief in free will embeds itself within so much of what we think, feel, and do. It isn't just about abstract philosophical metaphysics that applies only to those in academic circles. The belief in free will is a root feeling and concept that has an effect on how most people think about politics, religion, economics, morality / ethics, law, criminal and justice systems, feelings about ourselves, our relationship to others, and our relationship to the world around us. It's for this reason that the topic needs to move away from academia and into the real world. Individually, the free will topic means a lot to you and everything you think, say, and do. Overall, the topic means a great deal for the entirety of humanity. There are real world consequences to holding such a belief in free will, and those consequences are more dire than one would suspect. Free will is often taken for granted and assumed as something positive. The reality, however, is something surprisingly different and, at least initially, counter-intuitive. In actuality, the belief in free will creates people who have resentment, guilt, and hatred. It drives inequality, egoism, poverty dismissal, retributive tendencies, non-connectedness, and a slew of other unhelpful and downright dangerous thoughts and feelings. If we continue holding on to such illusions as if they are real, the future looks bleak. Rather than try to understand causes and fix things at base, we'll just assume that people could have done other than they did. It is, after all, much easier to place blame on people than it is to look for actual causes. It's a much simpler task to suggest that you or the another person simply could have or should have done differently. If, however, we begin to break away from the illusion -- If we begin to understand that free will is not a rational belief -- only then can humanity progress to a state of less ego, more understanding, and start to develop solutions based on reality rather than fictions. We can either keep holding on to the ultimately harmful free will illusion, or break the illusion in the most educated and safe ways possible. And the only way to break the illusion is with well reasoned information. In this enlightening book, 'Trick Slattery gives the ultimate case against free will, and also explores why it's important that we begin to recognize this fact and understand what it means. He makes the case that it's not only an illusion, but a harmful illusion at that. The only way to begin mending the harms this illusion has caused is to understand why it simply can't exist, and what it does and doesn't mean that it doesn't exist. Free will is an illusion. We experience a feeling of free will, but that feeling doesn't correlate with something real. It's only a feeling. Come be a part of the history that breaks the free will illusion for the betterment of humankind!


Elbow Room New Edition

Author by : Daniel C. Dennett
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 60
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File Size : 43,8 Mb
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Description : A landmark book in the debate over free will that makes the case for compatibilism. In this landmark 1984 work on free will, Daniel Dennett makes a case for compatibilism. His aim, as he writes in the preface to this new edition, was a cleanup job, “saving everything that mattered about the everyday concept of free will, while jettisoning the impediments.” In Elbow Room, Dennett argues that the varieties of free will worth wanting—those that underwrite moral and artistic responsibility—are not threatened by advances in science but distinguished, explained, and justified in detail. Dennett tackles the question of free will in a highly original and witty manner, drawing on the theories and concepts of fields that range from physics and evolutionary biology to engineering, automata theory, and artificial intelligence. He shows how the classical formulations of the problem in philosophy depend on misuses of imagination, and he disentangles the philosophical problems of real interest from the “family of anxieties” in which they are often enmeshed—imaginary agents and bogeymen, including the Peremptory Puppeteer, the Nefarious Neurosurgeon, and the Cosmic Child Whose Dolls We Are. Putting sociobiology in its rightful place, he concludes that we can have free will and science too. He explores reason, control and self-control, the meaning of “can” and “could have done otherwise,” responsibility and punishment, and why we would want free will in the first place. A fresh reading of Dennett's book shows how much it can still contribute to current discussions of free will. This edition includes as its afterword Dennett's 2012 Erasmus Prize essay.


Free Will

Author by : Peter B. Jung
Languange : en
Publisher by : Wipf and Stock Publishers
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Description : Free Will, also known as Freedom of the Will, is appraised as the one of the greatest works ever produced in America. The mid-eighteenth-century New England philosophical theologian Jonathan Edwards (1703-58) defines the will by importing terms from John Locke. Edwards states the Arminian nature of free will, suspects the need for such free will, and finally defends Calvinist free will and objects to the Arminian one. In his argument, he chooses three British antagonists: Daniel Whitby, Thomas Chubb, and Isaac Watts. These antagonists insist that the self-determining will is necessary for us to be morally accountable. Edwards disputes their objections that God's determination is contradictory to the liberty of the human will. He then goes to argue what kind of freedom of the will is necessary for the former and latter to be compatible. Edwards's psychological, moral, and theological philosophy is displayed. In addition, readers can learn how our will chooses something pleasant by following the dictate of understanding, while the author demonstrates the natures of New England Arminianism and Calvinism.


The Common Notion Of Free Will

Author by : Sergio Modlin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Description : The case for determinism is gaining momentum and a book that does an exceptionally good job explaining what determinism is and why free will isn't real is Breaking the Free Will Illusion. Free will is an ability many think they possess. Most, however, aren't aware of the dangers imposed by such a belief and have never thought about free will other than their own assumptions based on a pervasive feeling. In this enlightening book, the author gives the ultimate case against free will and also explores why we must begin to recognize this fact and understand what it means. He makes the case that it's not only an illusion but a harmful illusion at that. The only way to begin mending the harms this illusion has caused is to understand why it simply can't exist, and what it does and doesn't mean that it doesn't exist. Free will is an illusion. We experience a feeling of free will, but that feeling doesn't correlate with something real.


Free Will And Reactive Attitudes

Author by : Paul Russell
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : The philosophical debate about free will and responsibility has been of great importance throughout the history of philosophy. In modern times this debate has received an enormous resurgence of interest and the contribution in 1962 by P.F. Strawson with the publication of his essay "Freedom and Resentment" has generated a wide range of discussion and criticism in the philosophical community and beyond. The debate is of central importance to recent developments in the free will literature and has shaped the way contemporary philosophers now approach the problem. This volume brings together a focused selection of the major contributions and reactions to the free will and responsibility debate inspired by Strawson's contribution. McKenna and Russell also provide a comprehensive overview of the debate. This book will be of great value to scholars of Strawson and those interested in the free will debate more generally.


Free Will And God S Universal Causality

Author by : W. Matthews Grant
Languange : en
Publisher by : Bloomsbury Publishing
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Description : The traditional doctrine of God's universal causality holds that God directly causes all entities distinct from himself, including all creaturely actions. But can our actions be free in the strong, libertarian sense if they are directly caused by God? W. Matthews Grant argues that free creaturely acts have dual sources, God and the free creaturely agent, and are ultimately up to both in a way that leaves all the standard conditions for libertarian freedom satisfied. Offering a comprehensive alternative to existing approaches for combining theism and libertarian freedom, he proposes new solutions for reconciling libertarian freedom with robust accounts of God's providence, grace, and predestination. He also addresses the problem of moral evil without the commonly employed Free Will Defense. Written for analytic philosophers and theologians, Grant's approach can be characterized as “neo-scholastic” as well as “analytic,” since many of the positions defended are inspired by, consonant with, and develop resources drawn from the scholastic tradition, especially Aquinas.


Jesus The Crown Of Our Free Will

Author by : Michael Hanna
Languange : en
Publisher by : Australian Self Publishing Group
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Description : Choices and destiny go hand in hand, and for the sake of our survival, we make so many choices in our lives. However, many a time, our minds, some how, come to a stand still in the midst of a crowded and blurred world, re'ecting even for a few minutes on a question seems to be closely related to an eternal notion.Yet it's a strange and unfamiliar question, because of its close af'liation with a choice that may take us to a place beyond the Grave. No matter how often we trying to brush aside any thought or rid of any concern about our destiny, everyone, sooner is the better, has to draw the red line, and take the ? nal decision of what is our reaction would be when our ?nal will at last gaze at death face to face!Nevertheless, the time has come to search into this reality and make my own choice as well, and that is to write about the other free will, or rather the most valuable spiritual gift of free will, the one philosopher tend to ignore, and dispose of. Since such writings are not possible to be all inclusive in humble limited pages, I have tried, instead, to focus and bring together the Christian one, the most relevant one.I thank You gracious Lord, for You have bestowed on such mere souls the wonderful gift of righteous rebellion.


Free Will Indeterminacy And Self Determination

Author by : Moritz Deutschmann
Languange : en
Publisher by : GRIN Verlag
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Description : Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Philosophy - Theoretical (Realisation, Science, Logic, Language), grade: A- (=1,25), University of California, Berkeley (Department of Philosophy), course: Collective Intentionality (John Searle), 18 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Free will is one of the most fundamental presuppositions that we make in our everyday lives. At the same time, free will belongs to the concepts that are most difficult to integrate into a scientific idea of how the world works. This contrast has haunted philosophers for centuries, and although it seems that almost everything has already been said about this topic, there has been an animated debate in recent decades. In this paper, I would like to consider two of the positions adopted in this debate. At first, I would like to explore John Searle's interpretation of free will as a sequence of several moments of indeterminacy ("gaps") between the reasons for our actions and the actions themselves. I think the best way to understand his conception is to see it as an attempt to unite two different ideas about the relation between reasons and actions. On the one hand, the realist conception of Searle's philosophy presupposes that the reasons for our actions must have real causal power and are not only post facto justifications. On the other hand, Searle's understanding of rationality implies that reasons alone cannot be sufficient causes. In "Rationality in Action" Searle tries to bring both ideas together through the notion of an agent-self. I will argue that this attempt is problematic, not only because it leads our conception of free will towards a very unsatisfying choice between epiphenomenalism and natural indeterminism, but also because Searle cannot explain convincingly how the existence of indeterminacy in our brains could explain free will. The second part of the paper is an attempt to develop an alternative notion of free will, relying on two influential articles by Harry Frankfurt and Peter Strawson. The basic idea is that when we are interested in free will, we are not primarily interested in causal origins, but in self-determination, which is also the main presupposition in the practice of holding people responsible. With this perspective in mind, I will finally return to the questions of the natural foundations of free will and its compatibility with a deterministic conception of nature.


Human Will

Author by : Joseph A. Schrock
Languange : en
Publisher by : CreateSpace
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Description : This book consists of dialogues concerning the nature of the human will, as well as some discussion of concepts pertaining to a Divine Will. The problems and questions dealt with in this book surround the contrasts between a physicalist approach to the nature of the will versus a mental, metaphysical, and spiritual approach. The debates on these issues are intense and oftentimes passionate. Throughout the book, the imaginary interlocutor, Dennis, passionately defends attempts to reduce the human will to mere brain activity, and he argues that what seems to us like a personal will is no more than the our strongest drives and desires directing our behaviors. The opposing interlocutor, Paul, argues vehemently against this reductionist outlook, and he claims that the commonsense concept of a personal will that possesses some freedom to make genuine choices is precisely the crux of this mystery that we naturally are inclined to think of as our will, as well as our sense of feeling responsible for our choices. Early in the book, a little space is devoted to work done by Benjamin Libet concerning experiments that sought to determine when, where, and how choices really are made. The experiments cast some real doubts on our capacity to will and to initiate actions, but Libet concluded that free will can still exist, given the powers of the individual to veto desires and impulses, once those impulses have welled up into consciousness. Paul and Dennis spend much time debating deep philosophical issues surrounding the nature of consciousness, whether or not it makes sense to reduce consciousness (mind) to mere brain activity, and whether or not science will ever be able to decipher the nature of this wondrous phenomenon well call our consciousness or our mind. This book results from the author's intense concerns over the nature of human consciousness, the nature of the will, whether or not the will possesses some powers to make free choices, as well as how it is that a human will can be trained, groomed, and developed into a more powerful and effective will. Although the book is highly philosophical, one of the interlocutors, taking a spiritual approach, is powerfully persuaded that free will, responsibility, and a capacity to improve character are all genuine realities for human beings. His opponent, however, seeks valiantly to repudiate such a spiritual and metaphysical worldview, arguing that it is merely the strongest passions in our consciousness that result in driving our "choices," with no vestige of genuine freedom ever being available to us. Toward the end of the book, Paul makes quite a lot of discussion over his conviction that a Divine Will is the power that gives rise to and undergirds our universe with all life in it. Paul argues that the Divine possesses infinite powers of free choice, but is eternally committed to making only the best choices possible. Dennis, of course, ridicules these efforts, and he argues that science fails to offer any support for any such worldview. This book might well appeal to a fairly diverse readership, ranging from skeptical scientists, materialists, and those who repudiate free will, all the way to the opposite end of the spectrum where devout theists can enjoy and benefit from reading about how the human will can be trained and groomed into stronger and better character. By Paul's worldview, the will is the "engine and the steering wheel" for the soul -- such that the will is the arbiter of conduct and character development. This outlook, then leads to the conviction that our will is the essence of our character. This book might well be unique in its in-depth philosophical and scientific analysis of what constitutes that which we commonly refer to as our "will." We all think that we can will to take specified actions, but the philosophers would oftentimes ridicule this "naive" viewpoint as philosophically inept and untutored. In this book, such skepticism is challenged.


The Comprehensive Guide To Science And Faith

Author by : William A. Dembski
Languange : en
Publisher by : Harvest House Publishers
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Description : Science and Faith Can—and Do—Support Each Other Science and Christianity are often presented as opposites, when in fact the order of the universe and the complexity of life powerfully testify to intelligent design. With this comprehensive resource that includes the latest research, you’ll witness how the findings of scientists provide compelling reasons to acknowledge the mind and presence of a creator. Featuring more than 45 entries by top-caliber experts, you’ll better understand… how scientific concepts like intelligent design are supported by evidence the scientific findings that support the history and accounts found in the Bible the biases that lead to scientific information being presented as a challenge—rather than a complement—to Christianity Whether you’re looking for answers to your own questions or seeking to explain the case for intelligent design to others, The Comprehensive Guide to Science and Faith is an invaluable apologetic tool that will help you explore and analyze the relevant facts, research, and theories in light of biblical truth.


Erasmus And Luther The Battle Over Free Will

Author by : Anonim
Languange : en
Publisher by : Hackett Publishing
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Description : This compilation of writings from Erasmus and Luther's great debate--over free will and grace, and their respective efficacy for salvation--offers a fuller representation of the disputants' main arguments than has ever been available in a single volume in English. Included are key, corresponding selections from not only Erasmus' conciliatory A Discussion or Discourse concerning Free Will and Luther's forceful and fully argued rebuttal, but--with the battle now joined--from Erasmus' own forceful and fully argued rebuttal of Luther. Students of Reformation theology, Christian humanism, and sixteenth-century rhetoric will find here the key to a wider appreciation of one of early modern Christianity’s most illuminating and disputed controversies.


Real Materialism

Author by : Galen Strawson
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
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Description : Real Materialism draws together papers written over twenty years by Galen Strawson in philosophy of mind and metaphysics. Strawson focuses on five main areas of enquiry: [1] the nature of the physical, consciousness, the 'mind-body problem', and the prospects for panpsychism; [2] the self, the subject of experience, self-consciousness, and the 'narrative' self; [3] free will and moral responsibility; [4] the nature of thought and intentionality and their connection with consciousness; [5] the problem of causation with particular reference to the philosophy of David Hume.


Agency And Responsiblity

Author by : Laura Ekstrom
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
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Description : A companion volume to Free Will: A Philosophical Study, this new anthology collects influential essays on free will, including both well-known contemporary classics and exciting recent work. Agency and Responsibility: Essays on the Metaphysics of Freedom is divided into three parts. The essays in the first section address metaphysical issues concerning free will and causal determinism. The second section groups papers presenting a positive account of the nature of free action, including competing compatibilist and incompatibilist analyses. The third section concerns free will and moral responsibility, including theories of moral responsibility and the challenge to an alternative possibilities condition posed by Frankurt-type scenarios. Distinguished by its balance and consistently high quality, the volume presents papers selected for their significance, innovation, and clarity of expression. Contributors include Harry Frankfurt, Peter van Inwagen, David Lewis, Elizabeth Anscombe, John Martin Fischer, Michael Bratman, Roderick Chisholm, Robert Kane, Peter Strawson, and Susan Wolf. The anthology serves as an up-to-date resource for scholars as well as a useful text for courses in ethics, philosophy of religion, or metaphysics. In addition, paired with Free Will: A Philosophical Study, it would form an excellent upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in free will, responsibility, motivation, or action theory.


Free Will And Continental Philosophy

Author by : David Edward Rose
Languange : en
Publisher by : A&C Black
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Description : Offers a detailed and original analysis of the concept of free will in the Continental philosophical tradition.


Free Will Consciousness And Self

Author by : Preben Bertelsen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Berghahn Books
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Description : What is it to be human? How do we relate to the world, to each other and to our self in a human - in everyday life and when faced with life's big questions? In this book, the author develops a general theoretical model that might be able to offer a better understanding of the human condition and of the underlying principles of human behavior. The author shows that general psychology, bridging the natural sciences and the social sciences, can make a significant contribution to a general anthropology.


You Can Master Your Fear

Author by : Magdalena Scopelitis
Languange : en
Publisher by : BalboaPress
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Total Read : 24
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Description : Be the master of your fear and you can rule over your life. Fear is the only obstacle between you and your dreams, between you and what you most love. So says Archangel Raphael, who, in this series of channelings, unravels the mysteries of fear and, through its darkest paths, guides you step by step up to the glade of love. He helps you tear away fears masks one by one till you come to know its real face; only then does he teach you the ways to transmute it into love, thus eliminating its disastrous implications. According to Archangel Raphael, fear shows that somewhere in the deepest part of your being, you have chosen hatred versus love, and your life cannot have real meaning. Only when your fear is transformed can real life happen to you. The end of your fear will signal the beginning of your life. Until that day comes, you will have just lived in a lie, in an illusion. I am only asking you to give me your fear, Archangel Raphael adds, and I will give back to you your love, the most precious gift you ever had.


Free Will A Very Short Introduction

Author by : Thomas Pink
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford Paperbacks
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Description : Do we really make our own decisions? Or are we compelled to act by factors beyond our control? And if our choices are not free, why should we be held morally responsible for them. Thomas Pink's Very Short Introduction to free will is an accessible and stimulating investigation of one of the most important and enduring problems of Western philosophy. It looks at a range of issues surrounding this fundamental philosophical question, exploring it from the ideas of the Greek and medieval philosophers through to the thoughts of present-day thinkers.


Laws Mind And Free Will

Author by : Steven Horst
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 29
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Description : An account of scientific laws that vindicates the status of psychological laws and shows natural laws to be compatible with free will. In Laws, Mind, and Free Will, Steven Horst addresses the apparent dissonance between the picture of the natural world that arises from the sciences and our understanding of ourselves as agents who think and act. If the mind and the world are entirely governed by natural laws, there seems to be no room left for free will to operate. Moreover, although the laws of physical science are clear and verifiable, the sciences of the mind seem to yield only rough generalizations rather than universal laws of nature. Horst argues that these two familiar problems in philosophy—the apparent tension between free will and natural law and the absence of "strict" laws in the sciences of the mind—are artifacts of a particular philosophical thesis about the nature of laws: that laws make claims about how objects actually behave. Horst argues against this Empiricist orthodoxy and proposes an alternative account of laws—an account rooted in a cognitivist approach to philosophy of science. Horst argues that once we abandon the Empiricist misunderstandings of the nature of laws there is no contrast between "strict" laws and generalizations about the mind ("ceteris paribus" laws, laws hedged by the caveat "other things being equal"), and that a commitment to laws is compatible with a commitment to the existence of free will. Horst's alternative account, which he calls "cognitive Pluralism," vindicates the truth of psychological laws and resolves the tension between human freedom and the sciences.


The Belief In Free Will

Author by : Julian Brunick
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 84
Total Download : 812
File Size : 50,9 Mb
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Description : The case for determinism is gaining momentum and a book that does an exceptionally good job explaining what determinism is and why free will isn't real is Breaking the Free Will Illusion. Free will is an ability many think they possess. Most, however, aren't aware of the dangers imposed by such a belief and have never thought about free will other than their own assumptions based on a pervasive feeling. In this enlightening book, the author gives the ultimate case against free will and also explores why we must begin to recognize this fact and understand what it means. He makes the case that it's not only an illusion but a harmful illusion at that. The only way to begin mending the harms this illusion has caused is to understand why it simply can't exist, and what it does and doesn't mean that it doesn't exist. Free will is an illusion. We experience a feeling of free will, but that feeling doesn't correlate with something real.


Fiction Philosophy And Literary Theory

Author by : Christopher Norris
Languange : en
Publisher by : Continuum
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 86
Total Download : 130
File Size : 53,7 Mb
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Description : This book brings together three main topics - deconstruction, philosophy of language, and literary theory - that have figured centrally in Christopher Norris's work over the past two decades. It offers a refreshingly clear and vigorous statement of his views as to how 'theory' might profit from a greater awareness of current philosophical debates while philosophy might likewise gain by adopting a more open-minded attitude toward developments in literary theory. Most significant here is Norris's continuing exploration of the various points of contact between Jacques Derrida's thought and the kinds of concern - especially with issues in philosophical semantics and speech-act theory - that have preoccupied thinkers in the 'other', mainstream-analytic line of descent. However his focus is consistently on matters that should be of interest to philosophers and literary theorists alike. Thus Norris devotes some penetrating commentary to topics such as modal or 'possible-worlds' logic as it bears upon issues in narrative theory; the 'two cultures' (science versus literature) controversy; the different ways in which literary theory has alternately embraced and rejected the appeal to 'scientific' modes of analysis; and some possible reasons for Wittgenstein's well-known aversion to Shakespeare. He also suggests a novel approach to the free-will/determinism issue by way of debates about the nature of language and the scope it affords for expressive creativity despite - or owing to - the limits imposed by various structural constraints. Altogether this important new book provides a welcome overview of the author's current thinking and an equally welcome enlargement of horizons in contrast to the narrowly specialised character of much present-day academic discourse. This book brings together three main topics - deconstruction, philosophy of language, and literary theory - that have figured centrally in Christopher Norris's work over the past two decades. It offers a refreshingly clear and vigorous statement of his views as to how 'theory' might profit from a greater awareness of current philosophical debates while philosophy might likewise gain by adopting a more open-minded attitude toward developments in literary theory. Most significant here is Norris's continuing exploration of the various points of contact between Jacques Derrida's thought and the kinds of concern - especially with issues in philosophical semantics and speech-act theory - that have preoccupied thinkers in the 'other', mainstream-analytic line of descent. However his focus is consistently on matters that should be of interest to philosophers and literary theorists alike. Thus Norris devotes some penetrating commentary to topics such as modal or 'possible-worlds' logic as it bears upon issues in narrative theory; the 'two cultures' (science versus literature) controversy; the different ways in which literary theory has alternately embraced and rejected the appeal to 'scientific' modes of analysis; and some possible reasons for Wittgenstein's well-known aversion to Shakespeare. He also suggests a novel approach to the free-will/determinism issue by way of debates about the nature of language and the scope it affords for expressive creativity despite - or owing to - the limits imposed by various structural constraints. Altogether this important new book provides a welcome overview of the author's current thinking and an equally welcome enlargement of horizons in contrast to the narrowly specialised character of much present-day academic discourse.


Ethics As Social Science

Author by : Leland B. Yeager
Languange : en
Publisher by : Edward Elgar Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 26
Total Download : 420
File Size : 45,7 Mb
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Description : . . . this is a very ambitious book ranging over a great deal of territory and a great number of issues . . . the general perspectives offered are certainly engaging. Alan Hamlin, Journal of Economic Methodology . . . an illuminating book, informed by careful thought and wide-ranging scholarship. David Gordon, The Mises Review Economics claims to be a science of choice and its unintended consequences, but economists sneak moral judgments in through the back door. Ethics, on the other hand, often falters on the stilts of weak economic theories and assumptions. The result economics without ethics is often sterile, and ethics without economics is often incoherent. Severed from one another, each can be dangerously misleading, and each misses the opportunity to better understand the economic and moral complexity behind social cooperation. Ethics as Social Science helps reconcile the two disciplines, and represents years of seasoned, careful thinking on the topic. Using clear, straightforward language, Yeager argues that economists should be alert to their ethical positions, rather than preach tacitly behind the mask of social welfare analysis and the like. Calling for a comparative institutional analysis, Yeager himself advances an argument in favor of an indirect or rule utilitarianism, one that is sure to unleash debate among libertarians, classical liberals, and defenders of mainstream welfare economics, and among moral philosophers who follow the present state of economic theory. David L. Prychitko, Northern Michigan University, US With this important book, esteemed economist Leland B. Yeager grounds moral and political philosophy in the requirements of a well-functioning society, one whose members reap the gains from peaceful cooperation while pursuing their own diverse goals. This book explores the reasons an individual may have for helping to uphold such a society rather than seeking a free ride on the moral behavior of others. A work in the tradition of Hume, Smith, Mill, von Mises, Hayek and Hazlitt, it expounds a rules or indirect version of utilitarianism. It reviews criticisms of utilitarianism in detail, as well as alternative grounds of ethics including contractarianism, rights-based doctrines, and appeals to specific intuitions. Yeager brings the insights of economics to bear on a field usually dominated by philosophers and theologians. Ethics comes across as a subject amply open to the findings of economics and the other social and natural sciences. Economists, philosophers and other students and scholars of the social sciences will welcome this book. It will also appeal to any reader interested in exploring the ideas of ethics.


Law And Neuroscience

Author by : Owen D. Jones
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 77
Total Download : 764
File Size : 48,8 Mb
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Description : "Coursebook on law and neuroscience, including the bearing of neuroscience on criminal law, criminal procedure, and evidence"--