Description : Why does peace fail? More precisely, why do some countries that show every sign of having successfully emerged from civil war fall once again into armed conflict? What explains why peace "sticks" after some wars but not others? In this illuminating study, Charles T. Call examines the factors behind fifteen cases of civil war recurrence in Africa, Asia, the Caucasus, and Latin America. He argues that widely touted explanations of civil war—such as poverty, conflict over natural resources, and weak states—are far less important than political exclusion. Call’s study shows that inclusion of former opponents in postwar governance plays a decisive role in sustained peace. Why Peace Fails ultimately suggests that the international community should resist the temptation to prematurely withdraw resources and peacekeepers after a transition from war. Instead, international actors must remain fully engaged with postwar elected governments, ensuring that they make room for former enemies.
Description : Why does peace fail? More precisely, why do some countries that show every sign of having successfully emerged from civil war fall once again into armed conflict? What explains why peace sticks after some wars but not others?. In this illuminating study, Charles T. Call examines the factors behind fifteen cases of civil war recurrence in Africa, Asia, the Caucasus, and Latin America. He argues that widely touted explanations of civil war -- such as poverty, conflict over natural resources, and weak states -- are far less important than political exclusion. Call's study shows that inclusion of former opponents in postwar governance plays a decisive role in sustained peace. Why Peace Fails ultimately suggests that the international community should resist the temptation to prematurely withdraw resources and peacekeepers after a transition from war. Instead, international actors must remain fully engaged with postwar elected governments, ensuring that they make room for former enemies.
Description : How can we know if the peace that has been established following a civil war is a stable peace? More than half of all countries that experienced civil war since World War II have suffered a relapse into violent conflict, in some cases more than once. Meanwhile the international community expends billions of dollars and deploys tens of thousands of personnel each year in an effort to build peace in countries emerging from violent conflict. To build a lasting peace,more rigorous assessments of the requirements for a durable peace are needed. This in turn requires strong knowledge of the local culture, local history, and especially, the specific conflict dynamicsat work in a given conflict situation. To build a stable peace, it is argued here, it is important to take the measure of peace.
Description : Political and Military Sociology, Volume 41 explores the social elements and impact of national defense. The origin of government is a response to a society’s common interest in security and defense. In recent years, security and defense issues, and government responses, have become increasingly prominent in societies around the world. Despite intermittent pushes for privatization, however, security and defense have remained core functions of government. In this volume Bruce D. McDonald III investigates the historiography of the defense-growth relationship. Lachezar G. Anguelov and Robert J. Eger III consider the social impact with a case study of the Republic of Serbia. Maximiliano Mendieta and Bruce D. McDonald III consider the social spillovers of the sector that arise after the completion of a soldier’s service. Paul Kellogg considers why some countries have fared well when others have been slow to rebound. Hamid E. Ali studies pork barrel spending in the United States. Susan Sample, Brandon Valeriano, and Choong-Nam Kang broaden the understanding of the defense sector to include its output. Hamid E. Ali and Ubah A. Adan conclude the volume with a study on conflict and infant and child mortality rates. Traditionally, national defense is viewed solely in military terms. As part of their national security objectives, many defense sectors have undertaken a variety of social programs. While the existence of social programs is known, what remains uncertain is how they spill over from the sector to society at-large and what is the impact of that spillover.
Description : In a world torn by political strife, mediation and conflict resolution offer hope for global stability. This timely book examines the peace processes in Northern Ireland, where a peace negotiation has been enacted, and the Middle East, a region still in need of peace. Beginning with a review of the literature and theory relevant to peace and conflict studies, the text offers clear, nuanced explanations of the Northern Ireland process, including how it was saved, and the Oslo peace process of the Middle East. Lessons are drawn from both situations, offering guidance for mediators, activists, and leaders dealing with ongoing ethnic or national conflicts.
Description : First published in 1909, The Great Illusion sets out to answer one of the greatest questions in human history: Why is there war? Specifically, Angell wishes to discuss why there is war between the countries of Europe, which seem to always be at one another's throats. Angell refutes the belief that military power results in greater wealth and instead proposes that advanced economies based on trade and contract law can only generate value in the absence of military upset. War destroys any wealth that conquerors may have wanted to obtain, making the whole enterprise pointless. A deep understanding of this would, then, end the need for war. Students of history, political science, and peace studies will find much to ponder and much to argue with in this classic text.
Description : This book presents the concept of ‘unstaging’ war as a strategic response to the failure of the discourse and institutions of peace. This failure is explained by exploring the changing character of conflict in current and emergent global circumstances, such as asymmetrical conflicts, insurgencies, and terrorism. Fry argues that this pluralisation of war has broken the binary relation between war and peace: conflict is no longer self-evident, and consequentially the changes in the conditions, nature, systems, philosophies and technologies of war must be addressed. Through a deep understanding of contemporary war, Fry explains why peace fails as both idea and process, before presenting ‘Unstaging War’ as a concept and nascent practice that acknowledges conflict as structurally present, and so is not able to be dealt with by attempts to create peace. Against a backdrop of increasingly tense relations between global power blocs, the beginnings of a new nuclear arms race, and the ever-increasing human and environmental impacts of climate change, a more viable alternative to war is urgently needed. Unstaging War is not claimed as a solution, but rather as an exploration of critical problems and an opening into the means of engaging with them.
Description : How to maintain peace in the aftermath of war is arguably one of the most important questions of the post-Cold War era, and one of the least explored issues in the study of war and peace. This book explains why some cease-fire fall apart quickly while others last for years.
Description : This book explores the recent changes in U.S. foreign policy, examines the roles that the six primary actors (the President, the Congress, the bureaucracy, non-governmental organizations, the media and the public) play in policy decisions, and assesses the potential for improvement within this system.