Description : This volume contains 11 case studies of toxic waste repositories that use geologic isolation in order to accomplish the permanent and safe isolation of dangerous materials. It describes past and currently active facilities and also discusses generic considerations of the isolation capability of average crustal rock, apparently in an effort to convince audiences of the safety of these facilities.
Description : Technical contributions contained in this volume characterize continuity of science, engineering and modeling regarding the mechanical behavior of salt. These papers evidence relationships from microscopic dislocation structure to modeling applications over kilometer dimensions, a reach of more than ten orders of magnitude. The book is arranged alo
Description : Archaeologicl investigations of ENM 10222, ENM 10230, and ENM 10418 have produced significant information on one portion of the seasonal round of prehistoric groups which inhabited southeast New Mexico between 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1400. The results of intensive surface collections and subsurface testing suggest that hunter-gatherer subsistence system was in effect for the entire occupational history of the sites. This system developed out of an indigenous Late Archaic population and continued well into the Neoarchaic. During the Neoarchaic period an overlay of Jornada Mogollon traits entered the area, i.e., ceramics and arrow points. The evidence suggests that these additions did not effect the basic adaptive strategy. ENM 10222 and ENM 10230 represent plant collection and processing localities and probably were satellite sites to more complex limited base camps. ENM 10418 represents one of these limited base camps. Both functional categories represent one subset in seasonal round of activities. The three sites investigated represent the summer protion of a seasonal round with acorn and mesquite being the primary subsistence focus.
Description : The management and disposal of radioactive wastes are key international issues requiring a sound, fundamental scientific basis to insure public and environmental protection. Large quantities of existing nuclear waste must be treated to encapsulate the radioactivity in a form suitable for disposal. The treatment of this waste, due to its extreme diversity, presents tremendous engineering and scientific challenges. Geologic isolation of transuranic waste is the approach currently proposed by all nuclear countries for its final disposal. To be successful in this endeavor, it is necessary to understand the behavior of plutonium and the other actinides in relevant environmental media. Conceptual models for stored high level waste and waste repository systems present many sCientific difficulties due to their complexity and non-ideality. For example, much of the high level nuclear waste in the US is stored as alkaline concentrated electrolyte materials, where the chemistry of the actinides under such conditions is not well understood. This lack of understanding limits the successful separation and treatment of these wastes. Also, countries such as the US and Germany plan to dispose of actinide bearing wastes in geologic salt deposits. In this case, understanding the speciation and transport properties of actinides in brines is critical for confidence in repository performance and risk assessment activities. Many deep groundwaters underlying existing contaminated sites are also high in ionic strength. Until recently, the scientific basis for describing actinide chemistry in such systems was extremely limited.
Description : In 1989, the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) stopped making plutonium components for nuclear weapons, leaving the Dept. of Energy (DoE) with the challenge of managing and cleaning up nearly 40 years' worth of contamination at the site. This report reviews DoE's ability to close the RFETS by the end of 2006. Specifically, it examines: (1) DoE's plans for accelerating the site's closure and challenges that could impede closure; (2) the condition of the site at closure and the activities that will remain after closure; and (3) the costs of closing the site and the savings expected from accelerating its closure. Charts and tables.