Description : This book provides an important, critical, feminist perspective on desistance theory and practice. It is built around 23 original, narrative interviews with women and the staff of the community projects they attended, as well as a year of observations at Northshire Women’s Centres. The book is concerned with outlining a feminist approach to desistance which recognises that the majority of women in the criminal justice system come from backgrounds of abuse, economic disadvantage and have alcohol, drug and mental health issues. The book is also be concerned with challenging the dichotomy of narratives of victimisation and survival while recognising that women have agency. In doing so, Desisting Sisters contests the neoliberal and patriarchal approach to desistance which promotes women's role as care givers and unpaid volunteer workers. Ultimately, Barr contends that women's desistance can resist neo-liberal, patriarchal constructs, much in the same way that feminist criminology has contended that women's offending more generally, often does. This book will be of particular use and interest to those studying modules on both traditional and critical criminology, criminal justice, psychology, sociology and social work courses.
Description : The MPs’ expenses scandal in England and Wales and the international banking crisis have both brought into focus a concern about ‘elite’ individuals and their treatment by criminal justice systems. This interest intersects with a well-established concern within criminology for the transgressions of such offenders. However, up until now there has been little sustained consideration of what happens to such offenders following conviction and little discussion of how they attempt to avoid reoffending in the wake of their punishment. This study rectifies this omission by drawing upon white-collar offenders’ own accounts of their punishment and their attempts to make new lives in the aftermath of it. Detailing the impact of imprisonment on white-collar offenders, their release from prison and efforts to be successful again, this book outlines the particular strategies white-collar offenders used to cope with the difficulties they encountered and also analyses the ways they tried to work out ‘who they were’ in the post-release worlds they found themselves in. Representing the first sustained qualitative study of white-collar offenders and desistance from crime, this book will be of interest to academics and students engaged in the study of white-collar crime, desistance from crime and prison. The insights it offers into a particular group of offenders’ experience of criminal justice would also make it useful for criminal justice practitioners and anyone who wishes to understand the challenges faced by a group of offenders who are assumed to have many advantages when it comes to desisting from crime.
Description : This major new book brings together leading researchers in the field in order to describe and analyse internationally significant theoretical and empirical work on offender supervision, and to address the policy and practice implications of this work within and across jurisdictions. Arising out of the work of the international Collaboration of Researchers for the Effective Development of Offender Supervision (CREDOS), this book examines questions and issues that have arisen both within effectiveness research, and from research on desistance from offending. The book draws out the lessons that can be learned not just about ‘what works?’, but about how and why particular practices support desistance in specific jurisdictional, cultural and local contexts. Key themes addressed in this book include: New directions in theory and paradigms for practice Staff skills and effective offender supervision Different issues and challenges in improving offender supervision The role of families, ‘significant others’ and social networks Understanding and supporting compliance within supervision Exploring the social, political, organisational and historical contexts of offender supervision Offender Supervision will be essential reading for academics, undergraduate and postgraduate students, policy makers, managers and practitioners interested in offender supervision.
Description : When a woman leaves prison, she enters a world of competing messages and conflicting advice. Staff from prison, friends, family members, workers at halfway houses and treatment programs all have something to say about who she is, who she should be, and what she should do. The Ex-Prisoner’s Dilemma offers an in-depth, firsthand look at how the former prisoner manages messages about returning to the community. Over the course of a year, Andrea Leverentz conducted repeated interviews with forty-nine women as they adjusted to life outside of prison and worked to construct new ideas of themselves as former prisoners and as mothers, daughters, sisters, romantic partners, friends, students, and workers. Listening to these women, along with their family members, friends, and co-workers, Leverentz pieces together the narratives they have created to explain their past records and guide their future behavior. She traces where these narratives came from and how they were shaped by factors such as gender, race, maternal status, age, and experiences in prison, halfway houses, and twelve-step programs—factors that in turn shaped the women’s expectations for themselves, and others’ expectations of them. The women’s stories form a powerful picture of the complex, complicated human experience behind dry statistics and policy statements regarding prisoner reentry into society for women, how the experience is different for men and the influence society plays. With its unique view of how society’s mixed messages play out in ex-prisoners’ lived realities, The Ex-Prisoner’s Dilemma shows the complexity of these women’s experiences within the broad context of the war on drugs and mass incarceration in America. It offers invaluable lessons for helping such women successfully rejoin society.
Description : The issue of reintegrating ex-prisoners and ex-offenders into the community has become an increasingly pressing one around the world. In view of the rapid increase in the sheer number of people coming out of prison and their notorious lack of success in post-prison life, former Us Attorney General Janet Reno described ex-offender re-entry as 'one of the most pressing problems we face as a nation'.Yet the issue of offender reintegration and resettlement has not been well served by the criminological literature, and the new policies and programs that have been set up to address the problem are not always grounded in criminological thinking. This book seeks to address the important set of issues involved by bringing together the best of recent thinking and research on the subject of desistance from crime from both the US and the UK, with a distinct focus on how this research might impact on the design and implementation of ex-offender reintegration policy.
Description : While the number of women in U.S. jails remains low in comparison with the number of men, over the past 10 years their admission rate has soared and now surpasses the rate of increase for men. Who are these chronic low-level female offenders, and what path leads them to drug involvement, prostitution, and petty larceny-- illicit activities best described as hustling? While demographic information is available on these women, it tells us little about who they are as people, how they become repeat offenders, or how they survive on the street. Barbara Rockell sheds light on these questions in a fascinating and empathic study of female repeat offenders admitted to a New York state jail. Their varied life trajectories reveal the difficulties of growing up in an unstable environment where adulthood begins early, and survival depends on street smarts. Despite the women's self-defeating behaviors, many of them reveal a surprising degree of initiative and self-sufficiency. This finding runs counter to previous research in which drug use and criminal activity by women have been viewed as reflecting the perpetrators' victim status and lack of agency. The author argues for seeing these behaviors in a broader social context and suggests avenues for future study, as well as more humane and constructive intervention strategies.
Description : Recidivism and reincarceration rates of women in Aotearoa New Zealand are high despite attempts to address criminal offending through access to rehabilitation programmes and post-release services. In Aotearoa New Zealand and internationally, women’s desistance from crime is under-researched. The present study sought to explore and understand the experiences of women in their journey out of prison and how their involvement in rehabilitation programmes and reintegration services aided them when they returned to the community. Interviews were conducted with 20 women who had self-identified as attempting to desist from further offending and who were successfully (re)integrating into the community. The current study added a unique contribution to extant knowledge through taking a strengths-based and mana wāhine framework which focused on what it means for women to create and define a successful reintegration, especially through the representation of wāhine (female) Māori experiences. Interviews were analysed using an interpretivist-constructionist thematic analysis. There were six main themes extracted from the interviews which captured how women explained their reintegration and desistance journeys: (1) There was a Catalyst for Change; (2) Making Personal Changes that Maintained Desistance; (3) Programmes and Activities Helped; (4) Changing People and Places; (5) Social Support Helps (Re)integration and Desistance and; (6) Finding New Roles and a New Sense of Self. Findings demonstrated that women benefitted from completing programmes and utilising reintegration services, particularly when these were responsive to their individual needs, although areas for improvement were highlighted. Overall, the findings support the integration of women-specific factors into rehabilitation programmes and the implementation of women-specific practices into reintegration services. Findings also highlighted two diverging pathways to desistance dependent upon the women’s backgrounds: one characterised by personal development and growth and the other by recovery and healing from trauma. Underlying mechanisms of change are explored and implications for enhancing the effectiveness of existing programmes and services are discussed.
Description : Handbook of Antisocial Behavior Each year tens of thousands of families are torn apart, hundreds of thousands of lives are ruined, and millions of dollars' worth of property is destroyed as a result of antisocial behavior. So endemic are violence and aggression to our society that it isn't hard to imagine future historians categorizing the late twentieth century not as the "Space Age" or the "Information Age," but as the "Antisocial Age"--the time when society went to war against itself. As with any plague that threatens civilization, the first and best line of defense against antisocial behavior is the knowledge that comes from dedicated scientific research into its causes and cures. Does violence on the screen cause violence in the street? * Do hormones cause violence? * Can we prevent violence? * Is antisocial behavior a mental illness? * How can we identify and measure antisocial behavior? * How are women and men similar and different with respect to antisocial behavior? * How can we better understand spouse and child abuse? In the latter part of this century, an increasingly vigorous and sophisticated scientific study of antisocial behavior has emerged. This new science has offered partial answers to some very important questions which will lead to better understanding and prevention of antisocial behavior. These and other questions are addressed in the Handbook of Antisocial Behavior. In 50 chapters, more than 100 leading scientists, clinicians, and scholars review the research in their area of expertise to provide extraordinarily extensive and deep coverage of the field in a single volume. These experts share their findings, insights, and theories concerning most types of antisocial behaviors and antisocial behavioral disorders, including aggressiveness, noncompliance, conduct problems, delinquency, sexual offenses, criminality, media violence, child abuse, spouse abuse, impulsivity, and antisocial personality disorder. The Handbook of Antisocial Behavior is an indispensable resource for mental health practitioners, as well as anyone involved in research into violence and aggression, including psychologists, psychiatrists, neuroscientists, public health professionals, epidemiologists, sociologists, and criminologists. A comprehensive review of the latest research and clinical trends More than 100 of the world's leading researchers and clinicians from the fields of psychology, psychiatry, the neurosciences, sociology, epidemiology, and criminology share their insights into the causes of and cures for one of contemporary society's most perplexing and pernicious classes of behavioral disorders. Covering virtually all forms of antisocial behavior and antisocial behavioral disorders, the Handbook of Antisocial Behavior comprises the most extensive review currently available of: * The development and origins of antisocial behavior * The demographics of all forms of antisocial behavior * The latest assessment and diagnostic techniques * Breakthroughs in prevention and intervention * Special populations and special issues, from domestic violence to cross-cultural and gender issues