World War Ii In American Art

Author by : Robert Henkes
Languange : en
Publisher by : McFarland
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Description : Analyzes American painting depicting various aspects of World War II, including battle, prisoners, the homefront, recreation, and victory.


Artists Of World War Ii

Author by : Barbara McCloskey
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood Publishing Group
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Total Read : 28
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Description : Provides information on art during World War II with profiles of artists and descriptions of their works.


World War I And American Art

Author by : Pearl James
Languange : en
Publisher by : Princeton University Press
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Total Read : 69
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Description : "World War I and American Art provides an unprecedented look at the ways in which American artists reacted to the war. Artists took a leading role in chronicling the war, crafting images that influenced public opinion, supported mobilization efforts, and helped to shape how the war's appalling human toll was memorialized. The book brings together paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, posters, and ephemera, spanning the diverse visual culture of the period to tell the story of a crucial turning point in the history of American art"--


American Intervention And Modern Art In South America

Author by : Olga U. Herrera
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 51
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Description : SECAC Award for Excellence in Scholarly Research and Publication In this volume, Olga Herrera tells the story of how the United States used modern art as a cultural defense strategy in South America during World War II. Organized by figures such as Nelson A. Rockefeller, John Hay Whitney, and Lincoln Kirstein as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's war preparedness program, the Art Section of the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs (CI-AA) linked art and national security. In the process, modern art came to symbolize American values of social progress, peace, and democracy. The Art Section, a crucial yet rarely acknowledged arm of the CI-AA--a temporary wartime agency--supported traveling exhibitions of American paintings, furniture, and poster design competitions for artists across the Western Hemisphere, as well as widespread distribution of films with South American themes and circulation of Latin American art within the United States. These exchanges of art and ideas were meant to counter negative views of U.S. culture spread by Nazi and totalitarian sympathizers. Modern art became a tool to visually project U.S. culture and was used to unify the hemisphere against Axis influence in a cultural battlefield. Herrera illustrates how the program was an unprecedented public-private model of support for the arts, a driving force in the emergence of a Latin American art market in the United States, and a foundation for global art networks still in place today. A volume in the series Latin American and Caribbean Arts and Culture, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation


The Economics Of American Art

Author by : Robert B. Ekelund Jr
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
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Total Read : 87
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Description : The rapidly changing and evolving art market might appear to be chaotic to the casual observer, with new highs, potential lows, and tastes and fashions changing season to season. Economists, however, view the actions of buyers and sellers as constituting an identifiable market. They have, for some decades, studied such issues as artistic productivity and "death effects" on prices, investment returns, and on the basis of the behavior and estimated prices in auction markets. The Economics of American Art analyzes the most pervasive economic issues facing the art world, applied to the whole spectrum of American art. The book begins by looking at how a market for American art developed, how the politics of the post-war era shaped, at least in large part, the direction of American art, and how this legacy continues into contemporary art today. The book then tackles several salient, integral questions animating the American art world: Are age and "type" of artist (i.e. traditional or "innovative") related and, if so, how might they be related to productivity? Is investment in American art a remunerative endeavor compared to other investment possibilities? Do economic insights provide understanding of fakes, fraud and theft of art, particularly American art, and is it possible to prevent art crime? Is there is a boom (or a bust) in the market for contemporary American art as might be found in other markets? The ongoing evolution of American art is attended by a massive number of influences, and the economic concepts employed in this volume will complement other critical and important cultural studies of art. Both practical and accessible, The Economics of American Art will be essential for collectors, auction houses, American art experts of all kinds, museums, gallery owners and, not least, by economists with continuing scholarly interests in these matters.


World War Ii And The Postwar Years In America A Historical And Cultural Encyclopedia 2 Volumes

Author by : William H. Young Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : ABC-CLIO
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 71
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Description : More than 150 articles provide a revealing look at one of the most tempestuous decades in recent American history, describing the everyday activities of Americans as they dealt first with war, and then a difficult transition to peace and prosperity. • Approximately 175 A–Z entries on everyday life and popular culture in the United States, 1940–1950 • An extensive timeline of events during the covered decade • Numerous photographs that highlight article content • Charts listing pertinent statistics and/or related information • Selected readings accompanying each article • An extensive bibliography of print, aural, and electronic resources and a guide to related topics


Twentieth Century American Art

Author by : Erika Doss
Languange : en
Publisher by : OUP Oxford
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 53
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Description : Jackson Pollock, Georgia O'Keeffe, Andy Warhol, Julian Schnabel, and Laurie Anderson are just some of the major American artists of the twentieth century. From the 1893 Chicago World's Fair to the 2000 Whitney Biennial, a rapid succession of art movements and different styles reflected the extreme changes in American culture and society, as well as America's position within the international art world. This exciting new look at twentieth century American art explores the relationships between American art, museums, and audiences in the century that came to be called the 'American century'. Extending beyond New York, it covers the emergence of Feminist art in Los Angeles in the 1970s; the Black art movement; the expansion of galleries and art schools; and the highly political public controversies surrounding arts funding. All the key movements are fully discussed, including early American Modernism, the New Negro movement, Regionalism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, and Neo-Expressionism.


The Great Migrator

Author by : Hiroko Ikegami
Languange : en
Publisher by : MIT Press
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Total Read : 26
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Description : Robert Rauschenberg on tour in 1964 and the early globalization of the art world.


Native American Art In The Twentieth Century

Author by : W. Jackson Rushing III
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 66
Total Download : 252
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Description : This illuminating and provocative book is the first anthology devoted to Twentieth Century Native American and First Nation art. Native American Art brings together anthropologists, art historians, curators, critics and distinguished Native artists to discuss pottery, painitng, sculpture, printmaking, photography and performance art by some of the most celebrated Native American and Canadian First Nation artists of our time The contributors use new theoretical and critical approaches to address key issues for Native American art, including symbolism and spirituality, the role of patronage and musuem practices, the politics of art criticism and the aesthetic power of indigenous knowledge. The artist contributors, who represent several Native nations - including Cherokee, Lakota, Plains Cree, and those of the PLateau country - emphasise the importance of traditional stories, myhtologies and ceremonies in the production of comtemporary art. Within great poignancy, thye write about recent art in terms of home, homeland and aboriginal sovereignty Tracing the continued resistance of Native artists to dominant orthodoxies of the art market and art history, Native American Art in the Twentieth Century argues forcefully for Native art's place in modern art history.


African American Art

Author by : Sharon F. Patton
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 9
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Description : Discusses African American folk art, decorative art, photography, and fine arts


Collecting And Provenance

Author by : Jane Milosch
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
Total Download : 720
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Description : The study of provenance—the history of the creation and ownership of an artefact, work of art, or specimen—provides insights into the history of taste and collecting, illuminating the social, economic, and historic trends in which an object was created and collected. It is as much a history of people as it is of objects, and its study often reveals intricate networks of relationships, patterns of activity and motivations. This book promotes the study of the history of collecting and collections in all their variety through the lens of provenance, and explores the subject as a cross-disciplinary activity. Perhaps for the first time in a publication, it draws on expertise ranging from art history and anthropology, to natural history and law, looking at periods from antiquity through the 18th century and the Holocaust era to the present, and materials from Europe and the Americas to China and the Pacific. The issues raised are wide-ranging, touching on aspects of authenticity, cultural meaning and material transformation and economic and commercial drivers, as well as collector and object biography. The book fills a gap in the study of collecting and provenance, taking the subject holistically and from multiple standpoints, better to reflect the widening interest in provenance from a range of disciplinary perspectives. This book will be a service to the field, from established scholars and museum professionals to students of collecting history, cultural heritage, and museum studies.


Oxford Dictionary Of American Art And Artists

Author by : Ann Lee Morgan
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
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Description : This comprehensive dictionary is an indispensible guide to American art from colonial times to contemporary postmodernism. It is the most extensive, most up-to-date dictionary on American art currently available.


The Crucifixion In American Art

Author by : Robert Henkes
Languange : en
Publisher by : McFarland
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 15
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Description : The crucifixion of Christ has been richly portrayed by countless artists for hundreds of years, but it was European Renaissance styles and painters such as Kurz, Benjamin West and John Valentine Haidt that first informed American artists of the possibilities for depicting the crucifixion. This work features artists living and working in America from the mid-18th to the 21st century who depicted the crucifixion of Christ in their artwork. The 19th century saw painters like Julian Russell Story, John Singer Sargent, Vassili Verestchagin and Fred Holland break from the Renaissance tradition of the 18th century to begin a religious art revolution. The 20th century saw painters like Thomas Eakins and George Bellows continuing the traditions of the 19th until the Realist style became dominant, which lasted until the latter part of the century and the rise of Abstract Expressionism and a number of experimental styles such as Op, Pop, and Super-realism.


An American Art Colony

Author by : Paul H. Mattingly
Languange : en
Publisher by : Rowman & Littlefield
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 89
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Description : An American Art Colony studies three generations of a New Jersey art colony, setting a new model for the analysis of artistic biography and broadening the social context of artistic production. Its contribution rests on the historical value of colony changes over time from informal gatherings to self-conscious purposeful assemblages.


Locating American Art

Author by : Cynthia Fowler
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 96
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Description : How does museum location shape the interpretation of an art object by critics, curators, art historians, and others? To what extent is the value of a work of art determined by its location? Providing a close examination of individual works of American art in relation to gallery and museum location, this anthology presents case studies of paintings, sculpture, photographs, and other media that explore these questions about the relationship between location and the prescribed meaning of art. It takes an alternate perspective in that it provides in-depth analysis of works of art that are less well known than the usual American art suspects, and in locations outside of art museums in major urban cultural centers. By doing so, the contributors to this volume reveal that such a shift in focus yields an expanded and more complex understanding of American art. Close examinations are given to works located in small and mid-sized art museums throughout the United States, museums that generally do not benefit from the resources afforded by more powerful cultural establishments such as the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Works of art located at institutions other than art museums are also examined. Although the book primarily focuses on paintings, other media created from the Colonial Period to the present are considered, including material culture and craft. The volume takes an inclusive approach to American art by featuring works created by a diverse group of artists from canonical to lesser-known ones, and provides new insights by highlighting the regional and the local.


Critical Issues In American Art

Author by : Mary Ann Calo
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
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Description : This anthology of essays on different critical approaches and methodologies for the analysis and interpretation of American art and artists is designed for students and teachers in American art history and American studies programs. It contains twenty selections from academic journals on American art from colonial times to 1940. Mary Ann Calo provides an introduction to the anthology, explaining its purpose and organization, and each selection has a brief introduction about its main focus and scholarly approach. These case studies show the diversity of scholarly thinking about interpreting American works of art, which should be useful for teachers and comprehensible and interesting for students.This anthology contains twenty articles on American art from colonial times to 1940. The selections are mainly from academic journals and aim to provide the student and teacher with different critical approaches and methodologies for the analysis and interpretation of American art and artists. Mary Ann Calo's preface to the anthology explains its purpose and organization, and each article will have a brief introduction about its main focus and scholarly approach.This text meets the need in American art history studies for an anthology of essays on critical approaches and methodologies.


The History Of American Art Education

Author by : Peter Smith
Languange : en
Publisher by : Greenwood Publishing Group
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 95
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Description : Leads to a better understanding of the forces that have influenced art education in the schools.


The Rise And Fall Of American Art 1940s 1980s

Author by : Catherine Dossin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 78
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Description : In The Rise and Fall of American Art, 1940s-1980s, Catherine Dossin challenges the now-mythic perception of New York as the undisputed center of the art world between the end of World War II and the fall of the Berlin Wall, a position of power that brought the city prestige, money, and historical recognition. Dossin reconstructs the concrete factors that led to the shift of international attention from Paris to New York in the 1950s, and documents how ’peripheries’ such as Italy, Belgium, and West Germany exerted a decisive influence on this displacement of power. As the US economy sank into recession in the 1970s, however, American artists and dealers became increasingly dependent on the support of Western Europeans, and cities like Cologne and Turin emerged as major commercial and artistic hubs - a development that enabled European artists to return to the forefront of the international art scene in the 1980s. Dossin analyses in detail these changing distributions of geopolitical and symbolic power in the Western art worlds - a story that spans two continents, forty years, and hundreds of actors. Her transnational and interdisciplinary study provides an original and welcome supplement to more traditional formal and national readings of the period.


The Rise And Fall Of American Art 1940s 1980s

Author by : Assoc Prof Catherine Dossin
Languange : en
Publisher by : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 64
Total Download : 439
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Description : This book challenges the perception of New York as the undisputed center of the art world between the end of World War II and the fall of the Berlin Wall, a position of power that brought the city prestige, money, and historical recognition. In her transnational and interdisciplinary study, Dossin analyses changing distributions of geopolitical and symbolic power in the Western art worlds - a story that spans two continents, forty years, and hundreds of actors.


Arcadia Americana

Author by : Tatsiana Zhurauliova
Languange : en
Publisher by : Unknown
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Total Read : 12
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Description :


Leonard S Price Index Of Latin American Art At Auction

Author by : Susan Theran
Languange : en
Publisher by : Springer
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 67
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File Size : 50,5 Mb
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Description : The new Leonard's Price Index of Latin American Art at Auction focuses on a category of art that covers a wide range of periods and styles. It is unique in its coverage of 30 years of sale results and the inclusion of over 1,100 scholarly essays and biographies, some never before published in the English language. Entries, covering the years 1969 to 1999, number over 30,000 lots. The prices realized are from every auction house in North America and are listed in descending order by price within each auction season.


Handbook Of Hispanic Culture Literature

Author by : Nicolás Kanellos
Languange : en
Publisher by : Arte Publico Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 52
Total Download : 125
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Description : This work focuses on the culture of Hispanics, the fastest-growing ethnic group in the U.S. Reference works on Hispanic culture are few, yet this group is exerting an increasingly stronger influence on all aspects of American life. The project grew out of a series of conferences sponsored by the Instituto de Cooperacion Iberoamericana in Madrid between 1983 and 1990. In one seminar on Hispanic communities in the U.S., participants concluded that there was a serious bibliographic gap regarding this culture. The institute decided to produce an encyclopedia that would be written largely by U.S. Hispanics. This four-volume work covering history, literature and art, anthropology, and sociology is the result. Each volume is edited by a distinguished scholar of Hispanic culture and involves the collaboration of scholars on both sides of the Atlantic. Each begins with the same general introduction that discusses the development of Hispanic communities within the U.S. from the arrival of the Spaniards to present-day influences from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. Essays are not in alphabetical order, but in a classified arrangement. Volume 1, History, begins with an interpretive essay that criticizes the lack of recognition of the Hispanic influence in the building of the American nation. What follows is a collection of essays on such subjects as "The Spanish Exploration, Conquest and Settlement of New Mexico, 1540-1680," "Spanish Culture of the Golden Age and Eighteenth Century," and histories of Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in the U.S. The volume covering Hispanic literature and art begins with an essay that attempts to foster an appreciation of Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Chicano arts and letters. It goes on to discuss each people's literature by genre, which includes theater, the novel, poetry, and the short story. Other essays discuss women writers, the Hispanic oral tradition, art, music, cinema, and the Spanish-language press. The volume on sociology contains wide-ranging material, from the politics of Cuban emigres to "American-heritage families" to Cuban women in the U.S. Essays discuss religion, education, and feminism. The cultures of Hispanic groups are compared and described, along with such topics as language and culture, fiestas, entertainment, migration, and marriage and kinship. Each section of each volume ends with a bibliography of materials in both English and Spanish. All essays are signed, and the credentials of the authors are provided. Black-and-white photographs (and in the literature and art volume, colorplates) and other illustrations are used throughout. Each volume has an index. Some material is written in a turgid academic style. With better editing, some essays could have been presented in a more interesting fashion for a lay audience.


Searching For America

Author by : Robert Sheardy Jr.
Languange : en
Publisher by : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 32
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Description : The fourteen essays in this collection were drawn from papers presented at the annual conference of the American Culture Association in April of 2006. The widely ranging topics and diverse points of view are typical of papers showcased by this organization of educators, writers, cultural critics and graduate students. These essays each consider the pedagogical parameters by which the art of the United States is defined and, as we are a nation of many voices, they further represent the multicultural identities of America and its citizens. From traditional art historical analysis to post-modernist deconstruction, the authors represented herein explore paintings, prints, sculpture, and architectural objects, in the context of history, philosophy, aesthetics, and political points of view. The writers themselves represent multidisciplinary viewpoints, from art history to literature to architecture and social work. Their papers reflect current scholarship, speaking from the most up to date of pedagogies, and in voices which are both critical and analytical. They further speak for the American Culture Association whose mission it is to explore "all manifestations of the cultures of the Americas."


American Art Pottery

Author by : Alice Cooney Frelinghuysen
Languange : en
Publisher by : Metropolitan Museum of Art
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 48
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Description : p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 14.0px Verdana} At the height of the Arts and Crafts era in Europe and the United States, American ceramics were transformed from industrially produced ornamental works to handcrafted art pottery. Celebrated ceramists such as George E. Ohr, Hugh C. Robertson, and M. Louise McLaughlin, and prize-winning potteries, including Grueby and Rookwood, harnessed the potential of the medium to create an astonishing range of dynamic forms and experimental glazes. Spanning the period from the 1870s to the 1950s, this volume chronicles the history of American art pottery through more than three hundred works in the outstanding collection of Robert A. Ellison Jr. In a series of fascinating chapters, the authors place these works in the context of turn-of-the-century commerce, design, and social history. Driven to innovate and at times fiercely competitive, some ceramists strove to discover and patent new styles and aesthetics, while others pursued more utopian aims, establishing artist communities that promoted education and handwork as therapy. Written by a team of esteemed scholars and copiously illustrated with sumptuous images, this book imparts a full understanding of American art pottery while celebrating the legacy of a visionary collector.


The Grove Encyclopedia Of American Art

Author by : Joan M. Marter
Languange : en
Publisher by : Oxford University Press, USA
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 93
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Description : Where is American art in the new millennium? At the heart of all cultural developments is diversity. Access through recent technology engenders interaction with artists from around the world. The visual arts in the United States are bold and pulsating with new ideas.


Becoming American The Art And Identity Crisis Of Yasuo Kuniyoshi

Author by : ShiPu Wang
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Hawaii Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
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Description : "A few short days has changed my status in this country, although I myself have not changed at all." On December 8, 1941, artist Yasuo Kuniyoshi (1889-1953) awoke to find himself branded an "enemy alien" by the U.S. government in the aftermath of Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. The historical crisis forced Kuniyoshi, an émigré Japanese with a distinguished career in American art, to rethink his pictorial strategies and to confront questions of loyalty, assimilation, national and racial identity that he had carefully avoided in his prewar art. As an immigrant who had proclaimed himself to be as "American as the next fellow," the realization of his now fractured and precarious status catalyzed the development of an emphatic and conscious identity construct that would underlie Kuniyoshi’s art and public image for the remainder of his life. Drawing on previously unexamined primary sources, Becoming American? is the first scholarly book in over two decades to offer an in-depth and critical analysis of Yasuo Kuniyoshi’s pivotal works, including his "anti-Japan" posters and radio broadcasts for U.S. propaganda, and his coded and increasingly enigmatic paintings, within their historical contexts. Through the prism of an identity crisis, the book examines Kuniyoshi’s imagery and writings as vital means for him to engage, albeit often reluctantly and ambivalently, in discussions about American democracy and ideals at a time when racial and national origins were grounds for mass incarceration and discrimination. It is also among the first scholarly studies to investigate the activities of Americans of Japanese descent outside the internment camps and the intense pressures with which they had to deal in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor. As an art historical book, Becoming American? foregrounds broader historical debates of what constituted American art, a central preoccupation of Kuniyoshi’s artistic milieu. It illuminates the complicating factors of race, diasporas, and ideology in the construction of an American cultural identity. Timely and provocative, the book historicizes and elucidates the ways in which "minority" artists have been, and continue to be, both championed and marginalized for their cultural and ethnic "difference" within the twentieth-century American art canon.


Artistic Capital

Author by : David Galenson
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 34
Total Download : 477
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Description : At what stage of their careers do great artists produce their most important work? In a series of studies that bring new insights and new dimensions to the study of artistic creativity, Galenson’s new book examines the careers of more than one hundred modern painters, poets and novelists to reveal a powerful relationship between age and artistic creativity. Analyzing the careers of major literary and artistic figures, such as Cézanne, van Gogh, Dickens, Hemingway and Plath, Galenson highlights the different methods by which artists have made innovations. Pointing to a new and richer history of the modern arts, this book is of interest, not only to humanists and social scientists, but to anyone interested in the nature of human creativity in general.


Fall Out Shelters For The Human Spirit

Author by : Michael L. Krenn
Languange : en
Publisher by : Univ of North Carolina Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 25
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Description : During the Cold War, culture became another weapon in America's battle against communism. Part of that effort in cultural diplomacy included a program to arrange the exhibition of hundreds of American paintings overseas. Michael L. Krenn studies the successes, failures, contradictions, and controversies that arose when the U.S. government and the American art world sought to work together to make an international art program a reality between the 1940s and the 1970s. The Department of State, then the United States Information Agency, and eventually the Smithsonian Institution directed this effort, relying heavily on the assistance of major American art organizations, museums, curators, and artists. What the government hoped to accomplish and what the art community had in mind, however, were often at odds. Intense domestic controversies resulted, particularly when the effort involved modern or abstract expressionist art. Ultimately, the exhibition of American art overseas was one of the most controversial Cold War initiatives undertaken by the United States. Krenn's investigation deepens our understanding of the cultural dimensions of America's postwar diplomacy and explores how unexpected elements of the Cold War led to a redefinition of what is, and is not, "American."


The Emergence Of The African American Artist

Author by : Joseph D. Ketner
Languange : en
Publisher by : University of Missouri Press
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 45
Total Download : 393
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Description : Known in the mid-19th century as the best landscape painter in the West, paricularly for his pictures of the Ohio River, the African-American Robert S. Duncanson fell into obscurity for almost a century after his death.


Hot Art Cold War Southern And Eastern European Writing On American Art 1945 1990

Author by : Claudia Hopkins
Languange : en
Publisher by : Routledge
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Total Read : 28
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Description : Hot Art, Cold War – Southern and Eastern European Writing on American Art 1945-1990 is one of two text anthologies that trace the reception of American art in Europe during the Cold War era through primary sources. Translated into English for the first time from sixteen languages and introduced by scholarly essays, the texts in this volume offer a representative selection of the diverse responses to American art in Portugal, Italy, Spain, Greece, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Soviet Union (including the Baltic States), Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and East Germany (GDR). There was no single European discourse, as attitudes to American art were determined by a wide range of ideological, political, social, cultural and artistic positions that varied considerably across the European nations. This volume and its companion, Hot Art, Cold War – Northern and Western European Writing on American Art 1945-1990, offer the reader a unique opportunity to compare how European art writers introduced and explained contemporary American art to their many and varied audiences. Whilst many are fluent in one or two foreign languages, few are able to read all twenty-five languages represented in the two volumes. These ground-breaking publications significantly enrich the fields of American art studies and European art criticism.